Log24

Wednesday, May 2, 2018

Galois’s Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 2:20 PM

(A sequel to Foster's Space and Sawyer's Space)

See posts now tagged Galois's Space.

Sunday, November 19, 2017

Galois Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:00 PM

This is a sequel to yesterday's post Cube Space Continued.

Saturday, May 20, 2017

van Lint and Wilson Meet the Galois Tesseract*

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:12 AM

Click image to enlarge.

The above 35 projective lines, within a 4×4 array —


The above 15 projective planes, within a 4×4 array (in white) —

* See Galois Tesseract  in this journal.

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Galois Space —

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:00 PM

A very brief introduction:

Seven is Heaven...

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Harmonic Analysis and Galois Spaces

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:59 AM

The above sketch indicates, in a vague, hand-waving, fashion,
a connection between Galois spaces and harmonic analysis.

For more details of the connection, see (for instance) yesterday
afternoon's post Space Oddity.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Brouwer on the Galois Tesseract

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Yesterday's post suggests a review of the following —

Andries Brouwer, preprint, 1982:

"The Witt designs, Golay codes and Mathieu groups"
(unpublished as of 2013)

Pages 8-9:

Substructures of S(5, 8, 24)

An octad is a block of S(5, 8, 24).

Theorem 5.1

Let B0 be a fixed octad. The 30 octads disjoint from B0
form a self-complementary 3-(16,8,3) design, namely 

the design of the points and affine hyperplanes in AG(4, 2),
the 4-dimensional affine space over F2.

Proof….

… (iv) We have AG(4, 2).

(Proof: invoke your favorite characterization of AG(4, 2) 
or PG(3, 2), say 
Dembowski-Wagner or Veblen & Young. 

An explicit construction of the vector space is also easy….)

Related material:  Posts tagged Priority.

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Euclidean-Galois Interplay

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

For previous remarks on this topic, as it relates to
symmetry axes of the cube, see previous posts tagged Interplay.

The above posts discuss, among other things, the Galois
projective plane of order 3, with 13 points and 13 lines.

Oxley's 2004 drawing of the 13-point projective plane

These Galois points and lines may be modeled in Euclidean geometry
by the 13 symmetry axes and the 13 rotation planes
of the Euclidean cube. They may also be modeled in Galois geometry
by subsets of the 3x3x3 Galois cube (vector 3-space over GF(3)).

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110427-Cube27.jpg

   The 3×3×3 Galois Cube 

Exercise: Is there any such analogy between the 31 points of the
order-5 Galois projective plane and the 31 symmetry axes of the
Euclidean dodecahedron and icosahedron? Also, how may the
31 projective points  be naturally pictured as lines  within the 
5x5x5 Galois cube (vector 3-space over GF(5))?

Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —

For background to the above exercise, see
pp. 16-17 of A Geometrical Picture Book ,
by Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998), esp.
the citation to a 1983 article by Lemay.

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Galois Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:30 PM

(Continued)

The 16-point affine Galois space:

Further properties of this space:

In Configurations and Squares, see the
discusssion of the Kummer 166 configuration.

Some closely related material:

  • Wolfgang Kühnel,
    "Minimal Triangulations of Kummer Varieties,"
    Abh. Math. Sem. Univ. Hamburg 57, 7-20 (1986).

    For the first two pages, click here.

  • Jonathan Spreer and Wolfgang Kühnel,
    "Combinatorial Properties of the 3 Surface:
    Simplicial Blowups and Slicings,"
    preprint, 26 pages. (2009/10) (pdf).
    (Published in Experimental Math. 20,
    issue 2, 201–216 (2011).)

Monday, March 4, 2013

Occupy Galois Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:00 AM

Continued from February 27, the day Joseph Frank died

"Throughout the 1940s, he published essays
and criticism in literary journals, and one,
'Spatial Form in Modern Literature'—
a discussion of experimental treatments
of space and time by Eliot, Joyce, Proust,
Pound and others— published in
The Sewanee Review  in 1945, propelled him
to prominence as a theoretician."

— Bruce Weber in this morning's print copy
of The New York Times  (p. A15, NY edition)

That essay is reprinted in a 1991 collection
of Frank's work from Rutgers University Press:

See also Galois Space and Occupy Space in this journal.

Frank was best known as a biographer of Dostoevsky.
A very loosely related reference… in a recent Log24 post,
Freeman Dyson's praise of a book on the history of
mathematics and religion in Russia:

"The intellectual drama will attract readers
who are interested in mystical religion
and the foundations of mathematics.
The personal drama will attract readers
who are interested in a human tragedy
with characters who met their fates with
exceptional courage."

Frank is survived by, among others, his wife, a mathematician.

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Galois Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 6:00 PM

(Continued)

The previous post suggests two sayings:

"There is  such a thing as a Galois space."

— Adapted from Madeleine L'Engle

"For every kind of vampire, there is a kind of cross."

Thomas Pynchon

Illustrations—

(Click to enlarge.)

Sunday, July 29, 2012

The Galois Tesseract

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:00 PM

(Continued)

The three parts of the figure in today's earlier post "Defining Form"—

IMAGE- Hyperplanes (square and triangular) in PG(3,2), and coordinates for AG(4,2)

— share the same vector-space structure:

   0     c     d   c + d
   a   a + c   a + d a + c + d
   b   b + c   b + d b + c + d
a + b a + b + c a + b + d   a + b + 
  c + d

   (This vector-space a b c d  diagram is from  Chapter 11 of 
    Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups , by John Horton
    Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, first published by Springer
    in 1988.)

The fact that any  4×4 array embodies such a structure was implicit in
the diamond theorem (February 1979). Any 4×4 array, regarded as
a model of the finite geometry AG(4, 2), may be called a Galois tesseract.
(So called because of the Galois geometry involved, and because the
16 cells of a 4×4 array with opposite edges identified have the same
adjacency pattern as the 16 vertices of a tesseract (see, for instance,
Coxeter's 1950 "Self-Dual Configurations and Regular Graphs," figures
5 and 6).)

A 1982 discussion of a more abstract form of AG(4, 2):

Source:

The above 1982 remarks by Brouwer may or may not have influenced
the drawing of the above 1988 Conway-Sloane diagram.

Thursday, July 12, 2012

Galois Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 6:01 PM

An example of lines in a Galois space * —

The 35 lines in the 3-dimensional Galois projective space PG(3,2)—

(Click to enlarge.)

There are 15 different individual linear diagrams in the figure above.
These are the points of the Galois space PG(3,2).  Each 3-set of linear diagrams
represents the structure of one of the 35  4×4 arrays and also represents a line
of the projective space.

The symmetry of the linear diagrams accounts for the symmetry of the
840 possible images in the kaleidoscope puzzle.

* For further details on the phrase "Galois space," see
Beniamino Segre's "On Galois Geometries," Proceedings of the
International Congress of Mathematicians, 1958  
[Edinburgh].
(Cambridge U. Press, 1960, 488-499.)

(Update of Jan. 5, 2013— This post has been added to finitegeometry.org.)

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Euclid vs. Galois

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:01 AM

(Continued)

Euclidean square and triangle

Galois square and triangle

Background—

This journal on the date of Hilton Kramer's death,
The Galois Tesseract, and The Purloined Diamond.

Saturday, September 3, 2011

The Galois Tesseract (continued)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

A post of September 1, The Galois Tesseract, noted that the interplay
of algebraic and geometric properties within the 4×4 array that forms
two-thirds of the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator (MOG) may first have
been described by Cullinane (AMS abstract 79T-A37, Notices , Feb. 1979).

Here is some supporting material—

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11B/110903-Carmichael-Conway-Curtis.jpg

The passage from Carmichael above emphasizes the importance of
the 4×4 square within the MOG.

The passage from Conway and Sloane, in a book whose first edition
was published in 1988, makes explicit the structure of the MOG's
4×4 square as the affine 4-space over the 2-element Galois field.

The passage from Curtis (1974, published in 1976) describes 35 sets
of four "special tetrads" within the 4×4 square of the MOG. These
correspond to the 35 sets of four parallel 4-point affine planes within
the square. Curtis, however, in 1976 makes no mention of the affine
structure, characterizing his 140 "special tetrads" rather by the parity
of their intersections with the square's rows and columns.

The affine structure appears in the 1979 abstract mentioned above—

IMAGE- An AMS abstract from 1979 showing how the affine group AGL(4,2) of 322,560 transformations acts on a 4x4 square

The "35 structures" of the abstract were listed, with an application to
Latin-square orthogonality, in a note from December 1978

IMAGE- Projective-space structure and Latin-square orthogonality in a set of 35 square arrays

See also a 1987 article by R. T. Curtis—

Further elementary techniques using the miracle octad generator
, by R. T. Curtis. Abstract:

“In this paper we describe various techniques, some of which are already used by devotees of the art, which relate certain maximal subgroups of the Mathieu group M24, as seen in the MOG, to matrix groups over finite fields. We hope to bring out the wealth of algebraic structure* underlying the device and to enable the reader to move freely between these matrices and permutations. Perhaps the MOG was mis-named as simply an ‘octad generator’; in this paper we intend to show that it is in reality a natural diagram of the binary Golay code.”

(Received July 20 1987)

Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (Series 2) (1989), 32: 345-353

* For instance:

Algebraic structure in the 4x4 square, by Cullinane (1985) and Curtis (1987)

Update of Sept. 4— This post is now a page at finitegeometry.org.

Thursday, September 1, 2011

The Galois Tesseract

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

Click to enlarge

IMAGE- The Galois Tesseract, 1979-1999

IMAGE- Review of Conway and Sloane's 'Sphere Packings...' by Rota

Friday, September 17, 2010

The Galois Window

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 5:01 AM

Yesterday's excerpt from von Balthasar supplies some Catholic aesthetic background for Galois geometry.

That approach will appeal to few mathematicians, so here is another.

Euclid's Window: The Story of Geometry from Parallel Lines to Hyperspace  is a book by Leonard Mlodinow published in 2002.

More recently, Mlodinow is the co-author, with Stephen Hawking, of The Grand Design  (published on September 7, 2010).

A review of Mlodinow's book on geometry—

"This is a shallow book on deep matters, about which the author knows next to nothing."
— Robert P. Langlands, Notices of the American Mathematical Society,  May 2002

The Langlands remark is an apt introduction to Mlodinow's more recent work.

It also applies to Martin Gardner's comments on Galois in 2007 and, posthumously, in 2010.

For the latter, see a Google search done this morning—

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10B/100917-GardnerGalois.jpg

Here, for future reference, is a copy of the current Google cache of this journal's "paged=4" page.

Note the link at the bottom of the page in the May 5, 2010, post to Peter J. Cameron's web journal. Following the link, we find…

For n=4, there is only one factorisation, which we can write concisely as 12|34, 13|24, 14|23. Its automorphism group is the symmetric group S4, and acts as S3 on the set of three partitions, as we saw last time; the group of strong automorphisms is the Klein group.

This example generalises, by taking the factorisation to consist of the parallel classes of lines in an affine space over GF(2). The automorphism group is the affine group, and the group of strong automorphisms is its translation subgroup.

See also, in this  journal, Window and Window, continued (July 5 and 6, 2010).

Gardner scoffs at the importance of Galois's last letter —

"Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was
  merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers."
Last Recreations, page 156

For refutations, see the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society  in March 1899 and February 1909.

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Galois Field of Dreams

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 10:01 AM

It is well known that the seven (22 + 2 +1) points of the projective plane of order 2 correspond to 2-point subspaces (lines) of the linear 3-space over the two-element field Galois field GF(2), and may be therefore be visualized as 2-cube subsets of the 2×2×2 cube.

Similarly, recent posts* have noted that the thirteen (32 + 3 + 1) points of the projective plane of order 3 may be seen as 3-cube subsets in the 3×3×3 cube.

The twenty-one (42 + 4 +1) points of the (unique) projective plane of order 4 may also be visualized as subsets of a cube– in this case, the 4×4×4 cube. This visualization is somewhat more complicated than the 3×3×3 case, since the 4×4×4 cube has no central subcube, and each projective-plane point corresponds to four, not three, subcubes.

These three cubes, with 8, 27, and 64 subcubes, thus serve as geometric models in a straightforward way– first as models of finite linear spaces, hence as models for small Galois geometries derived from the linear spaces. (The cubes with 8 and 64 subcubes also serve in a less straightforward, and new, way as finite-geometry models– see The Eightfold Cube, Block Designs, and Solomon's Cube.)

A group of collineations** of the 21-point plane is one of two nonisomorphic simple groups of order 20,160. The other is the linear group acting on the linear 4-space over the two-element Galois field  GF(2). The 1899 paper establishing the nonisomorphism notes that "the expression Galois Field is perhaps not yet in general use."

Coordinates of the 4×4×4 cube's subcubes can, of course, be regarded as elements of the Galois field GF(64).

The preceding remarks were purely mathematical. The "dreams" of this post's title are not. See…

Number and Time, by Marie-Louise von Franz

See also Geometry of the I Ching and a search in this journal for "Galois + Ching."

* February 27 and March 13

** G20160 in Mitchell 1910,  LF(3,22) in Edge 1965

— Mitchell, Ulysses Grant, "Geometry and Collineation Groups
   of the Finite Projective Plane PG(2,22),"
   Princeton Ph.D. dissertation (1910)

— Edge, W. L., "Some Implications of the Geometry of
   the 21-Point Plane," Math. Zeitschr. 87, 348-362 (1965)

Monday, March 11, 2019

Ant-Man Meets Doctor Strange

Filed under: General — m759 @ 1:22 PM

IMAGE- Concepts of Space

The 4×4 square may also be called the Galois Tesseract .
By analogy, the 4x4x4 cube may be called the Galois Hexeract .

"Think outside the tesseract.

Friday, September 14, 2018

Denkraum

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 AM

http://www.log24.com/log/pix18/180914-Warburg_Denkraum-Google-result.jpg

I Ching Geometry search result

Underlying the I Ching  structure  is the finite affine space
of six dimensions over the Galois field with two elements.

In this field,  "1 + 1 = 0,"  as noted here Wednesday.

See also other posts now tagged  Interstice.

http://www.log24.com/log/pix18/180914-Warburg-Wikipedia.jpg

Sunday, September 9, 2018

Plan 9 Continues.

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 AM

"The role of Desargues's theorem was not understood until
the Desargues configuration was discovered. For example,
the fundamental role of Desargues's theorem in the coordinatization
of synthetic projective geometry can only be understood in the light
of the Desargues configuration.

Thus, even as simple a formal statement as Desargues's theorem
is not quite what it purports to be. The statement of Desargues's theorem
pretends to be definitive, but in reality it is only the tip of an iceberg
of connections with other facts of mathematics."

— From p. 192 of "The Phenomenology of Mathematical Proof,"
by Gian-Carlo Rota, in Synthese , Vol. 111, No. 2, Proof and Progress
in Mathematics
(May, 1997), pp. 183-196. Published by: Springer.

Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20117627.

Related figures —

Note the 3×3 subsquare containing the triangles ABC, etc.

"That in which space itself is contained" — Wallace Stevens

Monday, August 20, 2018

A Wheel for Ellmann

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:12 PM

The title was suggested by Ellmann's roulette-wheel analogy
in the previous post, "The Perception of Coincidence."

I Ching hexagrams as a Singer 63-cycle, plus zero

The Perception of Coincidence

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 2:15 AM

Ellmann on Joyce and 'the perception of coincidence' —

"Samuel Beckett has remarked that to Joyce reality was a paradigm,
an illustration of a possibly unstatable rule. Yet perhaps the rule
can be surmised. It is not a perception of order or of love; more humble
than either of these, it is the perception of coincidence. According to
this rule, reality, no matter how much we try to manipulate it, can only
assume certain forms; the roulette wheel brings up the same numbers
again and again; everyone and everything shift about in continual
movement, yet movement limited in its possibilities."

— Richard Ellmann, James Joyce , rev. ed.. Oxford, 1982, p. 551

Sunday, August 19, 2018

Possible Permutations

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:18 PM

John Calder, an independent British publisher who built a prestigious list
of authors like Samuel Beckett and Heinrich Böll and spiritedly defended
writers like Henry Miller against censorship, died on Aug. 13 in Edinburgh.
He was 91.

— Richard Sandomir in the online New York Times  this evening

On Beckett —

http://www.log24.com/log/pix18/180819-Joyce-Possible_Permutations-Cambridge_Companion-2004-p168.gif

Also on August 13th

http://www.log24.com/log/pix18/180813-Knight_Moves-080116-page-top.gif

Sunday, April 29, 2018

Amusement

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:00 PM

From the online New York Times  this afternoon:

Disney now holds nine of the top 10
domestic openings of all time —
six of which are part of the Marvel
Cinematic Universe. “The result is
a reflection of 10 years of work:
of developing this universe, creating
stakes as big as they were, characters
that matter and stories and worlds that
people have come to love,” Dave Hollis,
Disney’s president of distribution, said
in a phone interview.

From this  journal this morning:

"But she felt there must be more to this
than just the sensation of folding space
over on itself. Surely the Centaurs hadn't
spent ten years telling humanity how to 
make a fancy amusement-park ride
.
There had to be more—"

Factoring Humanity , by Robert J. Sawyer,
Tom Doherty Associates, 2004 Orb edition,
page 168

"The sensation of folding space . . . ."

Or unfolding:

Click the above unfolded space for some background.

Monday, March 12, 2018

“Quantum Tesseract Theorem?”

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

Remarks related to a recent film and a not-so-recent film.

For some historical background, see Dirac and Geometry in this journal.

Also (as Thas mentions) after Saniga and Planat —

The Saniga-Planat paper was submitted on December 21, 2006.

Excerpts from this  journal on that date —

A Halmos tombstone and the tale of HAL and the pod bay doors

     "Open the pod bay doors, HAL."

Sunday, March 4, 2018

The Square Inch Space: A Brief History

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:21 AM

1955  ("Blackboard Jungle") —

1976 —

2009 —

2016 —

 Some small Galois spaces (the Cullinane models)

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Beware of Analogical Extension

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:29 AM

"By an archetype  I mean a systematic repertoire
of ideas by means of which a given thinker describes,
by analogical extension , some domain to which
those ideas do not immediately and literally apply."

— Max Black in Models and Metaphors 
    (Cornell, 1962, p. 241)

"Others … spoke of 'ultimate frames of reference' …."
Ibid.

A "frame of reference" for the concept  four quartets

A less reputable analogical extension  of the same
frame of reference

Madeleine L'Engle in A Swiftly Tilting Planet :

"… deep in concentration, bent over the model
they were building of a tesseract:
the square squared, and squared again…."

See also the phrase Galois tesseract .

Thursday, October 12, 2017

East Meets West

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:09 PM

Saturday, September 23, 2017

The Turn of the Frame

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:19 AM

"With respect to the story's content, the frame thus acts
both as an inclusion of the exterior and as an exclusion
of the interior: it is a perturbation of the outside at the
very core of the story's inside, and as such, it is a blurring
of the very difference between inside and outside."

— Shoshana Felman on a Henry James story, p. 123 in
"Turning the Screw of Interpretation,"
Yale French Studies  No. 55/56 (1977), pp. 94-207.
Published by Yale University Press.

See also the previous post and The Galois Tesseract.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Space Art

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:05 PM

Silas in "Equals" (2015) —

Ever since we were kids it's been drilled into us that 
Our purpose is to explore the universe, you know.
Outer space is where we'll find 
…  the answers to why we're here and 
…  and where we come from.

Related material — 

'The Art of Space Art' in The Paris Review, Sept. 14, 2017

See also Galois Space  in this  journal.

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Black Well

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

The "Black" of the title refers to the previous post.
For the "Well," see Hexagram 48.

Related material —

The Galois Tesseract and, more generally, Binary Coordinate Systems.

Saturday, June 3, 2017

Expanding the Spielraum (Continued*)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:13 PM

Or:  The Square

"What we do may be small, but it has
 a certain character of permanence."
— G. H. Hardy

* See Expanding the Spielraum in this journal.

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Pursued by a Biplane

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:41 PM

The Galois Tesseract as a biplane —

Saturday, May 20, 2017

The Ludicrous Extreme

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:04 AM

From a review of the 2016 film "Arrival"

"A seemingly off-hand reference to Abbott and Costello
is our gateway. In a movie as generally humorless as Arrival,
the jokes mean something. Ironically, it is Donnelly, not Banks,
who initiates the joke, naming the verbally inexpressive
Heptapod aliens after the loquacious Classical Hollywood
comedians. The squid-like aliens communicate via those beautiful,
cryptic images. Those signs, when thoroughly comprehended,
open the perceiver to a nonlinear conception of time; this is
Sapir-Whorf taken to the ludicrous extreme."

Jordan Brower in the Los Angeles Review of Books

Further on in the review —

"Banks doesn’t fully understand the alien language, but she
knows it well enough to get by. This realization emerges
most evidently when Banks enters the alien ship and, floating
alongside Costello, converses with it in their picture-language.
She asks where Abbott is, and it responds — as presented
in subtitling — that Abbott 'is death process.'
'Death process' — dying — is not idiomatic English, and what
we see, written for us, is not a perfect translation but a
rendering of Banks’s understanding. This, it seems to me, is a
crucial moment marking the hard limit of a human mind,
working within the confines of human language to understand
an ultimately intractable xenolinguistic system."

For what may seem like an intractable xenolinguistic system to
those whose experience of mathematics is limited to portrayals
by Hollywood, see the previous post —

van Lint and Wilson Meet the Galois Tesseract.

The death process of van Lint occurred on Sept. 28, 2004.

See this journal on that date

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Image Albums

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:05 PM

Pinterest boards uploaded to the new m759.net/piwigo

Diamond Theorem 

Diamond Theorem Correlation

Miracle Octad Generator

The Eightfold Cube

Six-Set Geometry

Diamond Theory Cover

Update of May 2 —

Four-Color Decomposition

Binary Galois Spaces

The Galois Tesseract

Update of May 3 —

Desargues via Galois

The Tetrahedral Model

Solomon's Cube

Update of May 8 —

Art Space board created at Pinterest

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Sources

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:00 AM

From a Google image search yesterday

Sources (left to right, top to bottom) —

Math Guy (July 16, 2014)
The Galois Tesseract (Sept. 1, 2011)
The Full Force of Roman Law (April 21, 2014)
A Great Moonshine (Sept. 25, 2015)
A Point of Identity (August 8, 2016)
Pascal via Curtis (April 6, 2013)
Correspondences (August 6, 2011)
Symmetric Generation (Sept. 21, 2011)

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Midnight in Herald Square

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:00 AM

In memory of New Yorker  artist Anatol Kovarsky,
who reportedly died at 97 on June 1.

Note the Santa, a figure associated with Macy's at Herald Square.

See also posts tagged Herald Square, as well as the following
figure from this journal on the day preceding Kovarsky's death.

A note related both to Galois space and to
the "Herald Square"-tagged posts —

"There is  such a thing as a length-16 sequence."
— Saying adapted from a young-adult novel.

Sunday, May 8, 2016

The Three Solomons

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 PM

Earlier posts have dealt with Solomon Marcus and Solomon Golomb,
both of whom died this year — Marcus on Saint Patrick's Day, and
Golomb on Orthodox Easter Sunday. This suggests a review of
Solomon LeWitt, who died on Catholic Easter Sunday, 2007.

A quote from LeWitt indicates the depth of the word "conceptual"
in his approach to "conceptual art."

From Sol LeWitt: A Retrospective , edited by Gary Garrels, Yale University Press, 2000, p. 376:

THE SQUARE AND THE CUBE
by Sol LeWitt

"The best that can be said for either the square or the cube is that they are relatively uninteresting in themselves. Being basic representations of two- and three-dimensional form, they lack the expressive force of other more interesting forms and shapes. They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer; it is immediately evident that a square is a square and a cube a cube. Released from the necessity of being significant in themselves, they can be better used as grammatical devices from which the work may proceed."

"Reprinted from Lucy R. Lippard et al ., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America  55, No. 4 (July-August 1967): 54. (LeWitt’s contribution was originally untitled.)"

See also the Cullinane models of some small Galois spaces

 Some small Galois spaces (the Cullinane models)

Friday, May 6, 2016

Review

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:48 PM

 Some small Galois spaces (the Cullinane models)

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Strange Awards

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:38 AM

From a review of a play by the late Anne Meara* —

"Meara, known primarily as an actress/comedian
(half of the team of Stiller & Meara, and mother of
Ben Stiller), is also an accomplished writer for the
stage; her After Play  was much acclaimed….
This new, more ambitious piece starts off with a sly
send-up of awards dinners as the late benefactor of
a wealthy foundation–the comically pixilated scientist
Herschel Strange (Jerry Stiller)–is seen on videotape.
This tape sets a light tone that is hilariously
heightened when John Shea, as Arthur Garden,
accepts the award given in Strange's name." 

Compare and contrast —

A circular I Ching

I of course prefer the Galois I Ching .

* See the May 25, 2015, post The Secret Life of the Public Mind.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Black List

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

A search for "Max Black" in this journal yields some images
from a post of August 30, 2006 . . .

A circular I Ching

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified the seventh symbol."
— Stargate

The "Jackson" above is played by the young James Spader,
who in an older version currently stars in "The Blacklist."

"… the memorable models of science are 'speculative instruments,'
to borrow I. A. Richards' happy title. They, too, bring about a wedding
of disparate subjects, by a distinctive operation of transfer of the
implications  of relatively well-organized cognitive fields. And as with
other weddings, their outcomes are unpredictable."

Max Black in Models and Metaphors , Cornell U. Press, 1962

Monday, January 11, 2016

Space Oddity

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:15 PM

It is an odd fact that the close relationship between some
small Galois spaces and small Boolean spaces has gone 
unremarked by mathematicians.  

A Google search today for "Galois spaces" + "Boolean spaces"
yielded, apart from merely terminological sources, only some
introductory material I have put on the Web myself. 

Some more sophisticated searches, however led to a few
documents from the years 1971 – 1981 …

"Harmonic Analysis of Switching Functions" ,
by Robert J. Lechner, Ch. 5 in A. Mukhopadhyay, editor,
Recent Developments in Switching Theory , Academic Press, 1971.

"Galois Switching Functions and Their Applications,"
by B. Benjauthrit and I. S. Reed,
JPL Deep Space Network Progress Report 42-27 , 1975

D.K. Pradhan, “A Theory of Galois Switching Functions,”
IEEE Trans. Computers , vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 239-249, Mar. 1978

"Switching functions constructed by Galois extension fields,"
by Iwaro Takahashi, Information and Control ,
Volume 48, Issue 2, pp. 95–108, February 1981

An illustration from the Lechner paper above —

"There is  such a thing as harmonic analysis of switching functions."

— Saying adapted from a young-adult novel

Sunday, December 13, 2015

The Monster as Big as the Ritz

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:30 AM

"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."

— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois

Monday, November 2, 2015

Colorful Story

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

"The office of color in the color line
is a very plain and subordinate one.
It simply advertises the objects of
oppression, insult, and persecution.
It is not the maddening liquor, but
the black letters on the sign
telling the world where it may be had."

— Frederick Douglass, "The Color Line,"
The North American Review , Vol. 132,
No. 295, June 1881, page 575

Or gold letters.

From a search for Seagram in this  journal —

Seagram VO ad, image posted on All Souls's Day 2015

"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."

— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois

Saturday, October 31, 2015

Raiders of the Lost Crucible

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:15 AM

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —

Paraconsistent Logic

"First published Tue Sep 24, 1996;
substantive revision Fri Apr 5, 2013"

This  journal on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —

The object most closely resembling a "philosophers' stone"
that I know of is the eightfold cube .

For some related philosophical remarks that may appeal 
to a general Internet audience, see (for instance) a website
by I Ching  enthusiast Andreas Schöter that displays a labeled
eightfold cube in the form of a lattice diagram —

Related material by Schöter —

A 20-page PDF, "Boolean Algebra and the Yi Jing."
(First published in The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies ,
Vol 2, No 7, Summer 1998, pp. 19–34.)

I differ with Schöter's emphasis on Boolean algebra.
The appropriate mathematics for I Ching  studies is,
I maintain, not Boolean algebra  but rather Galois geometry.

See last Saturday's post Two Views of Finite Space.
Unfortunately, that post is, unlike Schöter's work, not  
suitable for a general Internet audience.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Algebra and Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:59 AM

"Perhaps an insane conceit …."    Perhaps.

Related remarks on algebra and space —

"The Quality Without a Name" (Log24, August 26, 2015).

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

“The Quality Without a Name”

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:00 AM

The title phrase, paraphrased without quotes in
the previous post, is from Christopher Alexander's book
The Timeless Way of Building  (Oxford University Press, 1979).

A quote from the publisher:

"Now, at last, there is a coherent theory
which describes in modern terms
an architecture as ancient as
human society itself."

Three paragraphs from the book (pp. xiii-xiv):

19. Within this process, every individual act
of building is a process in which space gets
differentiated. It is not a process of addition,
in which preformed parts are combined to
create a whole, but a process of unfolding,
like the evolution of an embryo, in which
the whole precedes the parts, and actualy
gives birth to then, by splitting.

20. The process of unfolding goes step by step,
one pattern at a time. Each step brings just one
pattern to life; and the intensity of the result
depends on the intensity of each one of these
individual steps.

21. From a sequence of these individual patterns,
whole buildings with the character of nature
will form themselves within your thoughts,
as easily as sentences.

Compare to, and contrast with, these illustrations of "Boolean space":

(See also similar illustrations from Berkeley and Purdue.)

Detail of the above image —

Note the "unfolding," as Christopher Alexander would have it.

These "Boolean" spaces of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 points
are also Galois  spaces.  See the diamond theorem —

Friday, August 14, 2015

Discrete Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:24 AM

(A review)

Galois space:

Image-- examples from Galois affine geometry

Counting symmetries of  Galois space:
IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine Galois space —

symmetries of the underlying projective Galois space:

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

Colorful Song

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:40 PM

For geeks* —

Domain, Domain on the Range , "

where Domain = the Galois tesseract  and
Range = the four-element Galois field.

This post was suggested by the previous post,
by a Log24 search for Knight + Move, and by
the phrase "discouraging words" found in that search.

* A term from the 1947 film "Nightmare Alley."

Thursday, March 26, 2015

The Möbius Hypercube

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:31 AM

The incidences of points and planes in the
Möbius 8 configuration (8 points and 8 planes,
with 4 points on each plane and 4 planes on each point),
were described by Coxeter in a 1950 paper.* 
A table from Monday's post summarizes Coxeter's
remarks, which described the incidences in
spatial terms, with the points and planes as the vertices
and face-planes of two mutually inscribed tetrahedra —

Monday's post, "Gallucci's Möbius Configuration,"
may not be completely intelligible unless one notices
that Coxeter has drawn some of the intersections in his 
Fig. 24, a schematic representation of the point-plane
incidences, as dotless, and some as hollow dots.  The figure,
"Gallucci's version of Möbius's 84," is shown below.
The hollow dots, representing the 8 points  (as opposed
to the 8 planes ) of the configuration, are highlighted in blue.

Here a plane  (represented by a dotless intersection) contains
the four points  that are represented in the square array as lying
in the same row or same column as the plane. 

The above Möbius incidences appear also much earlier in
Coxeter's paper, in figures 6 and 5, where they are shown
as describing the structure of a hypercube. 

In figures 6 and 5, the dotless intersections representing
planes have been replaced by solid dots. The hollow dots
have again been highlighted in blue.

Figures 6 and 5 demonstrate the fact that adjacency in the set of
16 vertices of a hypercube is isomorphic to adjacency in the set
of 16 subsquares of a square 4×4 array, provided that opposite
sides of the array are identified, as in Fig. 6. The digits in 
Coxeter's labels above may be viewed as naming the positions 
of the 1's in (0,1) vectors (x4, x3, x2, x1) over the two-element
Galois field.  In that context, the 4×4 array may be called, instead
of a Möbius hypercube , a Galois tesseract .

*  "Self-Dual Configurations and Regular Graphs," 
    Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society,
    Vol. 56 (1950), pp. 413-455

The subscripts' usual 1-2-3-4 order is reversed as a reminder
    that such a vector may be viewed as labeling a binary number 
    from 0  through 15, or alternately as labeling a polynomial in
    the 16-element Galois field GF(24).  See the Log24 post
     Vector Addition in a Finite Field (Jan. 5, 2013).

Monday, January 5, 2015

Gitterkrieg*

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:00 PM
 

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Blackboard Jungle

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:00 AM 

From a review in the April 2013 issue of
Notices of the American Mathematical Society

"The author clearly is passionate about mathematics
as an art, as a creative process. In reading this book,
one can easily get the impression that mathematics
instruction should be more like an unfettered journey
into a jungle where an individual can make his or her
own way through that terrain."

From the book under review—

"Every morning you take your machete into the jungle
and explore and make observations, and every day
you fall more in love with the richness and splendor 
of the place."

— Lockhart, Paul (2009-04-01). 
A Mathematician's Lament:
How School Cheats Us Out of Our Most Fascinating
and Imaginative Art Form 
 (p. 92).
Bellevue Literary Press. Kindle Edition. 

Related material: Blackboard Jungle in this journal.

See also Galois Space and Solomon's Mines.

"I pondered deeply, then, over the
adventures of the jungle. And after
some work with a colored pencil
I succeeded in making my first drawing.
My Drawing Number One.
It looked something like this:

I showed my masterpiece to the
grown-ups, and asked them whether
the drawing frightened them.

But they answered: 'Why should
anyone be frightened by a hat?'"

The Little Prince

* For the title, see Plato Thanks the Academy (Jan. 3).

Monday, December 29, 2014

Dodecahedron Model of PG(2,5)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 2:28 PM

Recent posts tagged Sagan Dodecahedron 
mention an association between that Platonic
solid and the 5×5 grid. That grid, when extended
by the six points on a "line at infinity," yields
the 31 points of the finite projective plane of
order five.  

For details of how the dodecahedron serves as
a model of this projective plane (PG(2,5)), see
Polster's A Geometrical Picture Book , p. 120:

For associations of the grid with magic rather than
with Plato, see a search for 5×5 in this journal.

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Platonic Analogy

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 2:23 PM

(Five by Five continued)

As the 3×3 grid underlies the order-3 finite projective plane,
whose 13 points may be modeled by
the 13 symmetry axes of the cube,
so the 5×5 grid underlies the order-5 finite projective plane,
whose 31 points may be modeled by
the 31 symmetry axes of the dodecahedron.

See posts tagged Galois-Plane Models.

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Pyramid Dance

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

Oslo artist Josefine Lyche has a new Instagram post,
this time on pyramids (the monumental kind).

My response —

Wikipedia's definition of a tetrahedron as a
"triangle-based pyramid"

and remarks from a Log24 post of August 14, 2013 :

Norway dance (as interpreted by an American)

IMAGE- 'The geometry of the dance' is that of a tetrahedron, according to Peter Pesic

I prefer a different, Norwegian, interpretation of "the dance of four."

Related material:
The clash between square and tetrahedral versions of PG(3,2).

See also some of Burkard Polster's triangle-based pyramids
and a 1983 triangle-based pyramid in a paper that Polster cites —

(Click image below to enlarge.)

Some other illustrations that are particularly relevant
for Lyche, an enthusiast of magic :

From On Art and Magic (May 5, 2011) —

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110505-ThemeAndVariations-Hofstadter.jpg

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110505-BlockDesignTheory.jpg

Mathematics

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110505-WikipediaFanoPlane.jpg

The Fano plane block design

Magic

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110505-DeathlyHallows.jpg

The Deathly Hallows  symbol—
Two blocks short of  a design.

 

(Updated at about 7 PM ET on Dec. 3.)

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Two Physical Models of the Fano Plane

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:23 AM

The Regular Tetrahedron

The seven symmetry axes of the regular tetrahedron
are of two types: vertex-to-face and edge-to-edge.
Take these axes as the "points" of a Fano plane.
Each of the tetrahedron's six reflection planes contains 
two vertex-to-face axes and one edge-to-edge axis.
Take these six planes as six of the "lines" of a Fano
plane. Then the seventh line is the set of three 
edge-to-edge axes.

(The Fano tetrahedron is not original with me.
See Polster's 1998 A Geometrical Picture Book pp. 16-17.)

The Cube

There are three reflection planes parallel to faces
of the cube. Take the seven nonempty subsets of
the set of these three planes as the "points" of a
Fano plane. Define the Fano "lines" as those triples
of these seven subsets in which each member of
the triple is the symmetric-difference sum of the 
other two members.

(This is the eightfold cube  discussed at finitegeometry.org.)

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

A Tetrahedral Fano-Plane Model

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:30 PM

Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —

It turns out that the following construction appears on
pages 16-17 of A Geometrical Picture Book , by 
Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998).

"Experienced mathematicians know that often the hardest
part of researching a problem is understanding precisely
what that problem says. They often follow Polya's wise
advice: 'If you can't solve a problem, then there is an
easier problem you can't solve: find it.'"

—John H. Conway, foreword to the 2004 Princeton
Science Library edition of How to Solve It , by G. Polya

For a similar but more difficult problem involving the
31-point projective plane, see yesterday's post
"Euclidean-Galois Interplay."

The above new [see update above] Fano-plane model was
suggested by some 1998 remarks of the late Stephen Eberhart.
See this morning's followup to "Euclidean-Galois Interplay" 
quoting Eberhart on the topic of how some of the smallest finite
projective planes relate to the symmetries of the five Platonic solids.

Update of Nov. 27, 2014: The seventh "line" of the tetrahedral
Fano model was redefined for greater symmetry.

Class Act

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:18 AM

Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —

For further information on the geometry in
the remarks by Eberhart below, see
pp. 16-17 of A Geometrical Picture Book ,
by Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998). Polster
cites a different article by Lemay.

A search for background to the exercise in the previous post
yields a passage from the late Stephen Eberhart:

The first three primes p = 2, 3, and 5 therefore yield finite projective planes with 7, 13, and 31 points and lines, respectively. But these are just the numbers of symmetry axes of the five regular solids, as described in Plato's Timaeus : The tetrahedron has 4 pairs of face planes and comer points + 3 pairs of opposite edges, totalling 7 axes; the cube has 3 pairs of faces + 6 pairs of edges + 4 pairs of comers, totalling 13 axes (the octahedron simply interchanges the roles of faces and comers); and the pentagon dodecahedron has 6 pairs of faces + 15 pairs of edges + 10 pairs of comers, totalling 31 axes (the icosahedron again interchanging roles of faces and comers). This is such a suggestive result, one would expect to find it dealt with in most texts on related subjects; instead, while "well known to those who well know such things" (as Richard Guy likes to quip), it is scarcely to be found in the formal literature [9]. The reason for the common numbers, it turns out, is that the groups of symmetry motions of the regular solids are subgroups of the groups of collineations of the respective finite planes, a face axis being different from an edge axis of a regular solid but all points of a projective plane being alike, so the latter has more symmetries than the former.

[9] I am aware only of a series of in-house publications by Fernand Lemay of the Laboratoire de Didactique, Faculté des Sciences de I 'Éducation, Univ. Laval, Québec, in particular those collectively titled Genèse de la géométrie  I-X.

— Stephen Eberhart, Dept. of Mathematics,
California State University, Northridge, 
"Pythagorean and Platonic Bridges between
Geometry and Algebra," in BRIDGES: Mathematical
Connections in Art, Music, and Science 
, 1998,
archive.bridgesmathart.org/1998/bridges1998-121.pdf

Eberhart died of bone cancer in 2003. A memorial by his
high school class includes an Aug. 7, 2003, transcribed
letter from Eberhart to a classmate that ends…


… I earned MA’s in math (UW, Seattle) and history (UM, Missoula) where a math/history PhD program had been announced but canceled.  So 1984 to 2002 I taught math (esp. non-Euclidean geometry) at C.S.U. Northridge.  It’s been a rich life.  I’m grateful. 
 
Steve
 

See also another informative BRIDGES paper by Eberhart
on mathematics and the seven traditional liberal arts.

Monday, September 22, 2014

Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:17 AM

Review of an image from a post of May 6, 2009:

Galois space of six dimensions represented in Euclidean spaces of three and of two dimensions

Sunday, September 14, 2014

Sensibility

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:26 AM

Structured gray matter:

Graphic symmetries of Galois space:
IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine  Galois space —

symmetries of the underlying projective  Galois space:

Sunday, August 31, 2014

Sunday School

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 AM

The Folding

Cynthia Zarin in The New Yorker , issue dated April 12, 2004—

“Time, for L’Engle, is accordion-pleated. She elaborated,
‘When you bring a sheet off the line, you can’t handle it
until it’s folded, and in a sense, I think, the universe can’t
exist until it’s folded — or it’s a story without a book.’”

The geometry of the 4×4 square array is that of the
3-dimensional projective Galois space PG(3,2).

This space occurs, notably, in the Miracle Octad Generator (MOG)
of R. T. Curtis (submitted to Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.  on
15 June 1974).  Curtis did not, however, describe its geometric
properties. For these, see the Cullinane diamond theorem.

Some history: 

Curtis seems to have obtained the 4×4 space by permuting,
then “folding” 1×8 binary sequences into 4×2 binary arrays.
The original 1×8 sequences came from the method of Turyn
(1967) described by van Lint in his book Coding Theory
(Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics, No. 201 , first edition
published in 1971). Two 4×2 arrays form each 4×4 square array
within the MOG. This construction did not suggest any discussion
of the geometric properties of the square arrays.

[Rewritten for clarity on Sept. 3, 2014.]

Friday, March 7, 2014

Kummer Varieties

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:20 AM

The Dream of the Expanded Field continues

Image-- The Dream of the Expanded Field

From Klein's 1893 Lectures on Mathematics —

"The varieties introduced by Wirtinger may be called Kummer varieties…."
E. Spanier, 1956

From this journal on March 10, 2013 —

From a recent paper on Kummer varieties,
arXiv:1208.1229v3 [math.AG] 12 Jun 2013,
"The Universal Kummer Threefold," by
Qingchun Ren, Steven V Sam, Gus Schrader, and Bernd Sturmfels —

IMAGE- 'Consider the 6-dimensional vector space over the 2-element field,' from 'The Universal Kummer Threefold'

Two such considerations —

IMAGE- 'American Hustle' and Art Cube

IMAGE- Cube for study of I Ching group actions, with Jackie Chan and Nicole Kidman 

Update of 10 PM ET March 7, 2014 —

The following slides by one of the "Kummer Threefold" authors give
some background related to the above 64-point vector space and
to the Weyl group of type E7(E7):

The Cayley reference is to "Algorithm for the characteristics of the
triple ϑ-functions," Journal für die Reine und Angewandte
Mathematik  87 (1879): 165-169. <http://eudml.org/doc/148412>.
To read this in the context of Cayley's other work, see pp. 441-445
of Volume 10 of his Collected Mathematical Papers .

Monday, October 14, 2013

Dream of the Expanded Field

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 8:28 PM

(Continued)

IMAGE- Cube for study of I Ching group actions, with Jackie Chan and Nicole Kidman

Further context: Galois I Ching

Thursday, June 13, 2013

Gate

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:13 PM

"Eight is a Gate." — Mnemonic rhyme

Today's previous post, Window, showed a version
of the Chinese character for "field"—

This suggests a related image

The related image in turn suggests

Unlike linear perspective, axonometry has no vanishing point,
and hence it does not assume a fixed position by the viewer.
This makes axonometry 'scrollable'. Art historians often speak of
the 'moving' or 'shifting' perspective in Chinese paintings.

Axonometry was introduced to Europe in the 17th century by
Jesuits returning from China.

Jan Krikke

As was the I Ching.  A related structure:

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Publication

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 4:00 PM

"I’ve had the privilege recently of being a Harvard University
professor, and there I learned one of the greatest of Harvard
jokes. A group of rabbis are on the road to Golgotha and 
Jesus is coming by under the cross. The young rabbi bursts
into tears and says, 'Oh, God, the pity of it!' The old rabbi says,
'What is the pity of it?' The young rabbi says, 'Master, Master,
what a teacher he was.'

'Didn’t publish!'

That cold tenure- joke at Harvard contains a deep truth.
Indeed, Jesus and Socrates did not publish."

— George Steiner, 2002 talk at York University

Related material

See also Steiner on Galois.

Les Miserables  at the Academy Awards

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Kummer and the Cube

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

Denote the d-dimensional hypercube by  γd .

"… after coloring the sixty-four vertices of  γ6
alternately red and blue, we can say that
the sixteen pairs of opposite red vertices represent
the sixteen nodes of Kummer's surface, while
the sixteen pairs of opposite blue vertices
represent the sixteen tropes."

— From "Kummer's 16," section 12 of Coxeter's 1950
    "Self-dual Configurations and Regular Graphs"

Just as the 4×4 square represents the 4-dimensional
hypercube  γ4  over the two-element Galois field GF(2),
so the 4x4x4 cube represents the 6-dimensional
hypercube  γ6  over GF(2).

For religious interpretations, see
Nanavira Thera (Indian) and
I Ching  geometry (Chinese).

See also two professors in The New York Times
discussing images of the sacred in an op-ed piece
dated Sept. 26 (Yom Kippur).

Monday, August 13, 2012

Raiders of the Lost Tesseract

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:33 PM

(An episode of Mathematics and Narrative )

A report on the August 9th opening of Sondheim's Into the Woods

Amy Adams… explained why she decided to take on the role of the Baker’s Wife.

“It’s the ‘Be careful what you wish’ part,” she said. “Since having a child, I’m really aware that we’re all under a social responsibility to understand the consequences of our actions.” —Amanda Gordon at businessweek.com

Related material—

Amy Adams in Sunshine Cleaning  "quickly learns the rules and ropes of her unlikely new market. (For instance, there are products out there specially formulated for cleaning up a 'decomp.')" —David Savage at Cinema Retro

Compare and contrast…

1.  The following item from Walpurgisnacht 2012

IMAGE- Excerpt from 'Unified Approach to Functional Decompositions of Switching Functions,' by Marek A. Perkowski et al., 1995

2.  The six partitions of a tesseract's 16 vertices 
       into four parallel faces in Diamond Theory in 1937

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Meet Max Black (continued)

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 11:59 PM

Background— August 30, 2006—

The Seventh Symbol:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Algebra.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

In the 2006 post, the above seventh symbol  110000 was
interpreted as the I Ching hexagram with topmost and
next-to-top lines solid, not broken— Hexagram 20, View .

In a different interpretation, 110000 is the binary for the decimal
number 48— representing the I Ching's Hexagram 48, The Well .

“… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and 
others have pointed out how ‘perhaps every science
must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and
perhaps without the metaphor there would never
have been any algebra’ ….”

– Max Black, Models and Metaphors,
Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted
in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors,
by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press,
paperback, 1975, page 25

The algebra is certainly clearer than either I Ching
metaphor, but is in some respects less interesting.

For a post that combines both the above I Ching
metaphors, View  and Well  , see Dec. 14, 2007.

In memory of scholar Elinor Ostrom,
who died today—

"Time for you to see the field."
Bagger Vance

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

The Shining of May 29

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

(Continued from May 29, 2002)

May 29, 1832—

http://www.log24.com/log/pix12A/120529-Galois-Signature-500w.jpg

Évariste Galois, Lettre de Galois à M. Auguste Chevalier

Après cela, il se trouvera, j'espère, des gens qui trouveront leur profit à déchiffrer tout ce gâchis.

(Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.)

Martin Gardner on the above letter—

"Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers."

The Last Recreations , by Martin Gardner, published by Springer in 2007, page 156.

Commentary from Dec. 2011 on Gardner's word "published" —

(Click to enlarge.)

IMAGE- Peter M. Neumann, 'Galois and His Groups,' EMS Newsletter, Dec. 2011

Sunday, October 30, 2011

Sermon

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:07 AM

Part I: Timothy Gowers on equivalence relations

Part II: Martin Gardner on normal subgroups

Part III: Evariste Galois on normal subgroups

"In all the history of science there is no completer example
 of the triumph of crass stupidity over untamable genius…."

— Eric Temple Bell, Men of Mathematics

See also an interesting definition and Weyl on Galois.

Update of 6:29 PM EDT Oct. 30, 2011—

For further details, see Herstein's phrase
"a tribute to the genius of Galois."

Friday, February 11, 2011

Brightness at Noon (continued)

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

From The Seventh Symbol

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"First of all, I'd like to thank the Academy…"

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

An Abstract Window

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 12:00 PM

The sliding window in blue below

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11/110209-SymFrameBWPageSm.jpg

Click for the web page shown.

is an example of a more general concept.

Such a sliding window,* if one-dimensional of length n , can be applied to a sequence of 0's and 1's to yield a sequence of n-dimensional vectors. For example— an "m-sequence" (where the "m" stands for "maximum length") of length 63 can be scanned by a length-6 sliding window to yield all possible 6-dimensional binary vectors except (0,0,0,0,0,0).

For details, see A Galois Field

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11/110209-GaloisStamp.jpg

The image is from Bert Jagers at his page on the Galois field GF(64) that he links to as "A Field of Honor."

For a discussion of the m-sequence shown in circular form above, see Jagers's  "Pseudo-Random Sequences from GF(64)." Here is a noncircular version of the length-63 m-sequence described by Jagers (with length scale below)—

100000100001100010100111101000111001001011011101100110101011111
123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

This m-sequence may be viewed as a condensed version of 63 of the 64 I Ching  hexagrams. (See related material in this journal.)

For a more literary approach to the window concept, see The Seventh Symbol (scroll down after clicking).

* Moving windows also appear (in a different way) In image processing, as convolution kernels .

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Intermediate Cubism

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:22 PM

The following is a new illustration for Cubist Geometries

IMAGE- A Galois cube: model of the 27-point affine 3-space

(For elementary cubism, see Pilate Goes to Kindergarten and The Eightfold Cube.
 For advanced, see Solomon's Cube and Geometry of the I Ching .)

Cézanne's Greetings.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Celebration of Mind

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:00 PM
 

"Why the Celebration?"

"Martin Gardner passed away on May 22, 2010."

IMAGE-- Imaginary movie poster- 'The Galois Connection'- from stoneship.org

Imaginary movie poster from stoneship.org

Context— The Gardner Tribute.

Monday, September 27, 2010

The Social Network…

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:29 AM

… In the Age of Citation

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM
Social network analysis is focused on the patterning of the social
relationships that link social actors. Typically, network data take the
form of a square-actor by actor-binary adjacency matrix, where
each row and each column in the matrix represents a social actor. A
cell entry is 1 if and only if a pair of actors is linked by some social
relationship of interest (Freeman 1989).

— "Using Galois Lattices to Represent Network Data,"
by Linton C. Freeman and Douglas R. White,
Sociological Methodology,  Vol. 23, pp. 127–146 (1993)

From this paper's CiteSeer page

Citations

766  Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications – WASSERMAN, FAUST – 1994
100 The act of creation – Koestler – 1964
 75 Visual Thinking – Arnheim – 1969

Visual Image of the Problem—

From a Google search today:

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10B/100927-GardnerGaloisSearch.jpg

Related material—

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10B/100927-GoogleBirthdayCake.jpg

"It is better to light one candle…"

"… the early favorite for best picture at the Oscars" — Roger Moore

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Mathematics and Narrative, continued

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:14 PM

"By groping toward the light we are made to realize
 how deep the darkness is around us."
  — Arthur Koestler, The Call Girls: A Tragi-Comedy,
      Random House, 1973, page 118

A 1973 review of Koestler's book—

"Koestler's 'call girls,' summoned here and there
 by this university and that foundation
 to perform their expert tricks, are the butts
 of some chilling satire."

Examples of Light—

Felix Christian Klein (1849- June 22, 1925) and Évariste Galois (1811-1832)

Klein on Galois

"… in France just about 1830 a new star of undreamt-of brilliance— or rather a meteor, soon to be extinguished— lighted the sky of pure mathematics: Évariste Galois."

— Felix Klein, Development of Mathematics in the 19th Century, translated by Michael Ackerman. Brookline, Mass., Math Sci Press, 1979. Page 80.

"… um 1830 herum in Frankreich als ein neuer Stern von ungeahntem Glanze am Himmel der reinen Mathematik aufleuchtet, um freilich, einem Meteor gleich, sehr bald zu verlöschen: Évariste Galois."

— Felix Klein, Vorlesungen Über Die Entwicklung Der Mathematick Im 19. Jahrhundert. New York, Chelsea Publishing Co., 1967. (Vol. I, originally published in Berlin in 1926.) Page 88.

Examples of Darkness—

Martin Gardner on Galois

"Galois was a thoroughly obnoxious nerd,
 suffering from what today would be called
 a 'personality disorder.'  His anger was
 paranoid and unremitting."

Gardner was reviewing a recent book about Galois by one Amir Alexander.

Alexander himself has written some reviews relevant to the Koestler book above.

See Alexander on—

The 2005 Mykonos conference on Mathematics and Narrative

A series of workshops at Banff International Research Station for Mathematical Innovation between 2003 and 2006. "The meetings brought together professional mathematicians (and other mathematical scientists) with authors, poets, artists, playwrights, and film-makers to work together on mathematically-inspired literary works."

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Imago Creationis

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , — m759 @ 6:00 PM

Image-- The Four-Diamond Tesseract

In the above view, four of the tesseract's 16
vertices are overlaid by other vertices.
For views that are more complete and
moveable, see Smith's tesseract page.

Four-Part Tesseract Divisions

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100619-TesseractAnd4x4.gif

The above figure shows how four-part partitions
of the 16 vertices  of a tesseract in an infinite
Euclidean  space are related to four-part partitions
of the 16 points  in a finite Galois  space

Euclidean spaces versus Galois spaces
in a larger context—

 

 


Infinite versus Finite

The central aim of Western religion —

"Each of us has something to offer the Creator...
the bridging of
                 masculine and feminine,
                      life and death.
It's redemption.... nothing else matters."
-- Martha Cooley in The Archivist  (1998)

The central aim of Western philosophy —

              Dualities of Pythagoras
              as reconstructed by Aristotle:
                 Limited     Unlimited
                     Odd     Even
                    Male     Female
                   Light      Dark
                Straight    Curved
                  ... and so on ....

"Of these dualities, the first is the most important; all the others may be seen as different aspects of this fundamental dichotomy. To establish a rational and consistent relationship between the limited [man, etc.] and the unlimited [the cosmos, etc.] is… the central aim of all Western philosophy."
— Jamie James in The Music of the Spheres  (1993)

Another picture related to philosophy and religion—

Jung's Four-Diamond Figure from Aion

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100615-JungImago.gif

This figure was devised by Jung
to represent the Self. Compare the
remarks of Paul Valéry on the Self—

Flight from Eden: The Origins of Modern Literary Criticism and Theory, by Steven Cassedy, U. of California Press, 1990, pages 156-157—

 

 

Valéry saw the mind as essentially a relational system whose operation he attempted to describe in the language of group mathematics. "Every act of understanding is based on a group," he says (C, 1:331). "My specialty— reducing everything to the study of a system closed on itself and finite" (C, 19: 645). The transformation model came into play, too. At each moment of mental life the mind is like a group, or relational system, but since mental life is continuous over time, one "group" undergoes a "transformation" and becomes a different group in the next moment. If the mind is constantly being transformed, how do we account for the continuity of the self? Simple; by invoking the notion of the invariant. And so we find passages like this one: "The S[elf] is invariant, origin, locus or field, it's a functional property of consciousness" (C, 15:170 [2:315]). Just as in transformational geometry, something remains fixed in all the projective transformations of the mind's momentary systems, and that something is the Self (le Moi, or just M, as Valéry notates it so that it will look like an algebraic variable). Transformation theory is all over the place. "Mathematical science…  reduced to algebra, that is, to the analysis of the transformations of a purely differential being made up of homogeneous elements, is the most faithful document of the properties of grouping, disjunction, and variation in the mind" (O, 1:36). "Psychology is a theory of transformations, we just need to isolate the invariants and the groups" (C, 1:915). "Man is a system that transforms itself" (C, 2:896).

Notes:

  Paul Valéry, Oeuvres  (Paris: Pléiade, 1957-60)

C   Valéry, Cahiers, 29 vols. (Paris: Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique, 1957-61)

Note also the remarks of George David Birkhoff at Rice University
in 1940 (pdf) on Galois's theory of groups and the related
"theory of ambiguity" in Galois's testamentary letter—

… metaphysical reasoning always relies on the Principle of Sufficient Reason, and… the true meaning of this Principle is to be found in the “Theory of Ambiguity” and in the associated mathematical “Theory of Groups.”

If I were a Leibnizian mystic, believing in his “preestablished harmony,” and the “best possible world” so satirized by Voltaire in “Candide,” I would say that the metaphysical importance of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the cognate Theory of Groups arises from the fact that God thinks multi-dimensionally* whereas men can only think in linear syllogistic series, and the Theory of Groups is the appropriate instrument of thought to remedy our deficiency in this respect.

* That is, uses multi-dimensional symbols beyond our grasp.

Related material:

Imago Creationis

A medal designed by Leibniz to show how
binary arithmetic mirrors the creation by God
of something (1) from nothing (0).

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100618-LeibnizMedaille.jpg

Another array of 16 strings of 0's and 1's, this time
regarded as coordinates rather than binary numbers—

Frame of Reference

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100619-ReferenceFrame.gif

The Diamond Theorem

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100619-Dtheorem.gif

Some context by a British mathematician —

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100619-Cameron.gif

Imago

by Wallace Stevens

Who can pick up the weight of Britain, 
Who can move the German load 
Or say to the French here is France again? 
Imago. Imago. Imago. 

It is nothing, no great thing, nor man 
Of ten brilliancies of battered gold 
And fortunate stone. It moves its parade 
Of motions in the mind and heart, 

A gorgeous fortitude. Medium man 
In February hears the imagination's hymns 
And sees its images, its motions 
And multitudes of motions 

And feels the imagination's mercies, 
In a season more than sun and south wind, 
Something returning from a deeper quarter, 
A glacier running through delirium, 

Making this heavy rock a place, 
Which is not of our lives composed . . . 
Lightly and lightly, O my land, 
Move lightly through the air again.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Geometry of Language

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 10:31 AM

(Continued from April 23, 2009, and February 13, 2010.)

Paul Valéry as quoted in yesterday’s post:

“The S[elf] is invariant, origin, locus or field, it’s a functional property of consciousness” (Cahiers, 15:170 [2: 315])

The geometric example discussed here yesterday as a Self symbol may seem too small to be really impressive. Here is a larger example from the Chinese, rather than European, tradition. It may be regarded as a way of representing the Galois field GF(64). (“Field” is a rather ambiguous term; here it does not, of course, mean what it did in the Valéry quotation.)

From Geometry of the I Ching

Image-- The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching

The above 64 hexagrams may also be regarded as
the finite affine space AG(6,2)— a larger version
of the finite affine space AG(4,2) in yesterday’s post.
That smaller space has a group of 322,560 symmetries.
The larger hexagram  space has a group of
1,290,157,424,640 affine symmetries.

From a paper on GL(6,2), the symmetry group
of the corresponding projective  space PG(5,2),*
which has 1/64 as many symmetries—

(Click to enlarge.)

Image-- Classes of the Group GL(6,)

For some narrative in the European  tradition
related to this geometry, see Solomon’s Cube.

* Update of July 29, 2011: The “PG(5,2)” above is a correction from an earlier error.

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

The Harvard Style

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:01 PM

"I wonder if there's just been a critical mass
of creepy stories about Harvard
in the last couple of years…
A kind of piling on of
    nastiness and creepiness…"

Margaret Soltan, October 23, 2006

Harvard University Press
  on Facebook

Harvard University Press Harvard University Press
Martin Gardner on demythologizing mathematicians:
"Galois was a thoroughly obnoxious nerd"
http://ping.fm/YrgOh
  May 26 at 6:28 pm via Ping.f

The book that the late Gardner was reviewing
was published in April by Harvard University Press.

If Gardner's remark were true,
Galois would fit right in at Harvard. Example—
  The Harvard math department's pie-eating contest

Harvard Math Department Pi Day event

Rite of Passage

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 AM

Wikipedia—

"On June 2, Évariste Galois was buried in a common grave of the Montparnasse cemetery whose exact location is unknown."

Évariste Galois, Lettre de Galois à M. Auguste Chevalier

Après cela, il y aura, j'espère, des gens qui trouveront leur profit à déchiffrer tout ce gâchis.

(Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.)

Martin Gardner on the above letter—

"Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers."

The Last Recreations, by Martin Gardner, published by Springer in 2007, page 156.

Leonard E. Dickson

Image-- Leonard E. Dickson on the posthumous fundamental memoir of Galois

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

The Gardner Tribute

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

"It is a melancholy pleasure that what may be [Martin] Gardner’s last published piece, a review of Amir Alexander’s Duel at Dawn: Heroes, Martyrs & the Rise of Modern Mathematics, will appear next week in our June issue."

Roger Kimball of The New Criterion, May 23, 2010.

The Gardner piece is now online.  It contains…

Gardner's tribute to Galois

"Galois was a thoroughly obnoxious nerd,
 suffering from what today would be called
 a 'personality disorder.'  His anger was
 paranoid and unremitting."

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Tuesday August 18, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Prima Materia

(Background: Art Humor: Sein Feld (March 11, 2009) and Ides of March Sermon, 2009)

From Cardinal Manning’s review of Kirkman’s Philosophy Without Assumptions

“And here I must confess… that between something and nothing I can find no intermediate except potentia, which does not mean force but possibility.”

— Contemporary Review, Vol. 28 (June-November, 1876), page 1017

Furthermore….

Cardinal Manning, Contemporary Review, Vol. 28, pages 1026-1027:

The following will be, I believe, a correct statement of the Scholastic teaching:–

1. By strict process of reason we demonstrate a First Existence, a First Cause, a First Mover; and that this Existence, Cause, and Mover is Intelligence and Power.

2. This Power is eternal, and from all eternity has been in its fullest amplitude; nothing in it is latent, dormant, or in germ: but its whole existence is in actu, that is, in actual perfection, and in complete expansion or actuality. In other words God is Actus Purus, in whose being nothing is potential, in potentia, but in Him all things potentially exist.

3. In the power of God, therefore, exists the original matter (prima materia) of all things; but that prima materia is pura potentia, a nihilo distincta, a mere potentiality or possibility; nevertheless, it is not a nothing, but a possible existence. When it is said that the prima materia of all things exists in the power of God, it does not mean that it is of the existence of God, which would involve Pantheism, but that its actual existence is possible.

4. Of things possible by the power of God, some come into actual existence, and their existence is determined by the impression of a form upon this materia prima. The form is the first act which determines the existence and the species of each, and this act is wrought by the will and power of God. By this union of form with the materia prima, the materia secunda or the materia signata is constituted.

5. This form is called forma substantialis because it determines the being of each existence, and is the root of all its properties and the cause of all its operations.

6. And yet the materia prima has no actual existence before the form is impressed. They come into existence simultaneously;

[p. 1027 begins]

as the voice and articulation, to use St. Augustine’s illustration, are simultaneous in speech.

7. In all existing things there are, therefore, two principles; the one active, which is the form– the other passive, which is the matter; but when united, they have a unity which determines the existence of the species. The form is that by which each is what it is.

8. It is the form that gives to each its unity of cohesion, its law, and its specific nature.*

When, therefore, we are asked whether matter exists or no, we answer, It is as certain that matter exists as that form exists; but all the phenomena which fall under sense prove the existence of the unity, cohesion, species, that is, of the form of each, and this is a proof that what was once in mere possibility is now in actual existence. It is, and that is both form and matter.

When we are further asked what is matter, we answer readily, It is not God, nor the substance of God; nor the presence of God arrayed in phenomena; nor the uncreated will of God veiled in a world of illusions, deluding us with shadows into the belief of substance: much less is it catter [pejorative term in the book under review], and still less is it nothing. It is a reality, the physical kind or nature of which is as unknown in its quiddity or quality as its existence is certainly known to the reason of man.

* “… its specific nature”
        (Click to enlarge) —

Footnote by Cardinal Manning on Aquinas
The Catholic physics expounded by Cardinal Manning above is the physics of Aristotle.

For a more modern treatment of these topics, see Werner Heisenberg’s Physics and Philosophy. For instance:

“The probability wave of Bohr, Kramers, Slater, however, meant… a tendency for something. It was a quantitative version of the old concept of ‘potentia’ in Aristotelian philosophy. It introduced something standing in the middle between the idea of an event and the actual event, a strange kind of physical reality just in the middle between possibility and reality.”

Compare to Cardinal Manning’s statement above:

“… between something and nothing I can find no intermediate except potentia…”

To the mathematician, the cardinal’s statement suggests the set of real numbers between 1 and 0, inclusive, by which probabilities are measured. Mappings of purely physical events to this set of numbers are perhaps better described by applied mathematicians and physicists than by philosophers, theologians, or storytellers. (Cf. Voltaire’s mockery of possible-worlds philosophy and, more recently, The Onion‘s mockery of the fictional storyteller Fournier’s quantum flux. See also Mathematics and Narrative.)

Regarding events that are not purely physical– those that have meaning for mankind, and perhaps for God– events affecting conception, birth, life, and death– the remarks of applied mathematicians and physicists are often ignorant and obnoxious, and very often do more harm than good. For such meaningful events, the philosophers, theologians, and storytellers are better guides. See, for instance, the works of Jung and those of his school. Meaningful events sometimes (perhaps, to God, always) exhibit striking correspondences. For the study of such correspondences, the compact topological space [0, 1] discussed above is perhaps less helpful than the finite Galois field GF(64)– in its guise as the I Ching. Those who insist on dragging God into the picture may consult St. Augustine’s Day, 2006, and Hitler’s Still Point.

Monday, July 27, 2009

Monday July 27, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:29 PM
Field Dance

The New York Times
on June 17, 2007:

 Design Meets Dance,
and Rules Are Broken

Yesterday's evening entry was
on the fictional sins of a fictional
mathematician and also (via a link
to St. Augustine's Day, 2006), on
the geometry of the I Ching* —

The eternal
combined with
the temporal:

Circular arrangement of I Ching hexagrams based on Singer 63-cycle in the Galois field GF(64)

The fictional mathematician's
name, noted here (with the Augustine-
I Ching link as a gloss) in yesterday's
evening entry, was Summerfield.

From the above Times article–
"Summerspace," a work by
 choreographer Merce Cunningham
and artist Robert Rauschenberg
that offers a competing
 vision of summer:

Summerspace — Set by Rauschenberg, choreography by Cunningham

Cunningham died last night.

John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Robert Rauschenberg in the 1960's

From left, composer John Cage,
choreographer Merce Cunningham,
and artist Robert Rauschenberg
in the 1960's

"When shall we three meet again?"

* Update of ca. 5:30 PM 7/27– today's online New York Times (with added links)– "The I Ching is the 'Book of Changes,' and Mr. Cunningham's choreography became an expression of the nature of change itself. He presented successive images without narrative sequence or psychological causation, and the audience was allowed to watch dance as one might watch successive events in a landscape or on a street corner."

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Wednesday May 6, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 11:07 AM
Joke

“My pursuits are a joke
in that the universe is a joke.
One has to reflect
the universe faithfully.”

John Frederick Michell
Feb. 9, 1933 –
April 24, 2009 

“I laugh because I dare not cry.
This is a crazy world and
the only way to enjoy it
is to treat it as a joke.”

— Robert A. Heinlein,
The Number of the Beast

For Marisa Tomei
  (born Dec. 4, 1964) —
on the day that
   Bob Seger turns 64 —

A Joke:
Points All Her Own

Points All Her Own,
Part I:

(For the backstory, see
the Log24 entries and links
on Marisa Tomei’s birthday
last year.)

Ad for a movie of the book 'Flatland'


Points All Her Own,

Part II:

(For the backstory, see
Galois Geometry:
The Simplest Examples
.)

Galois geometry: the simplest examples

Points All Her Own,

Part III:

(For the backstory, see
Geometry of the I Ching
and the history of
Chinese philosophy.)

Galois space of six dimensions represented in Euclidean spaces of three and of two dimensions

In simpler terms:

Smackdown!

Garfield on May 6, 2009: Smackdown!

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Thursday December 18, 2008

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM
Polar Opposites

Susan Sontag in
this week's New Yorker:
"The mind is a whore."

Embedded in the Sontag
article is the following:

The New Yorker on Santa's use of the word 'ho'

I Ching hexagrams as a Singer 63-cycle, plus zero

Act One

South Pole:

David Mamet's book 'A Whore's Profession'

Hexagram 21 in the King Wen sequence

Shi Ho

Act Two

North Pole:

Susan Sontag

Hexagram 2 in the King Wen sequence

Kun

"If baby I'm the bottom,
you're the top."
Cole Porter   

Happy birthday,
Steven Spielberg.

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Tuesday December 16, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:00 PM
The Square Wheel
(continued)

From The n-Category Cafe today:

David Corfield at 2:33 PM UTC quoting a chapter from a projected second volume of a biography:

"Grothendieck’s spontaneous reaction to whatever appeared to be causing a difficulty… was to adopt and embrace the very phenomenon that was problematic, weaving it in as an integral feature of the structure he was studying, and thus transforming it from a difficulty into a clarifying feature of the situation."

John Baez at 7:14 PM UTC on research:

"I just don’t want to reinvent a wheel, or waste my time inventing a square one."

For the adoption and embracing of such a problematic phenomenon, see The Square Wheel (this journal, Sept. 14, 2004).

For a connection of the square wheel with yesterday's entry for Julie Taymor's birthday, see a note from 2002:

Wolfram's Theory of Everything
and the Gameplayers of Zan
.

Related pictures–

From Wolfram:

http://www.log24.com/log/pix08A/081216-WolframWalsh.gif

A Square

From me:

http://www.log24.com/log/pix08A/081216-IChingWheel.gif

A Wheel

Sunday, May 25, 2008

Sunday May 25, 2008

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:28 AM
"Caught up 
    in circles…"

— Song lyric,  
Cyndi Lauper

http://www.log24.com/log/pix08/080525-Alethiometer.jpg

Alethiometer from
"The Golden Compass"

 

The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching in a circular arrangement suggested by a Singer 63-cycle

The I Ching
as Alethiometer

Update:

See also this morning's
later entry, illustrating
the next line of Cyndi
Lauper's classic lyric
"Time After Time" —

"… Confusion is    
  nothing new."

Saturday, February 23, 2008

Saturday February 23, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM
Jumpers

"An acute study of the links
between word and fact"
Nina daVinci Nichols

 
Thanks to a Virginia reader for a reminder:
 
Virginia /391062427/item.html? 2/22/2008 7:37 PM
 
The link is to a Log24 entry
that begins as follows…

An Exercise

of Power

Johnny Cash:
"And behold,
a white horse."

Springer logo - A chess knight
Chess Knight
(in German, Springer)

This, along with the "jumper" theme in the previous two entries, suggests a search on springer jumper.That search yields a German sports phrase, "Springer kommt!"  A search on that phrase yields the following:
"Liebe Frau vBayern,
mich würde interessieren wie man
mit diesem Hintergrund
(vonbayern.de/german/anna.html)
zu Springer kommt?"

Background of "Frau vBayern" from thePeerage.com:

Anna-Natascha Prinzessin zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg 

F, #64640, b. 15 March 1978Last Edited=20 Oct 2005

     Anna-Natascha Prinzessin zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg was born on 15 March 1978. She is the daughter of Ludwig Ferdinand Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Countess Yvonne Wachtmeister af Johannishus. She married Manuel Maria Alexander Leopold Jerg Prinz von Bayern, son of Leopold Prinz von Bayern and Ursula Mohlenkamp, on 6 August 2005 at Nykøping, Södermanland, Sweden.

 

The date of the above "Liebe Frau vBayern" inquiry, Feb. 1, 2007, suggests the following:

From Log24 on
St. Bridget's Day, 2007:

The quotation
"Science is a Faustian bargain"
and the following figure–

Change

The 63 yang-containing hexagrams of the I Ching as a Singer 63-cycle

From a short story by
the above Princess:

"'I don't even think she would have wanted to change you. But she for sure did not want to change herself. And her values were simply a part of her.' It was true, too. I would even go so far as to say that they were her basis, if you think about her as a geometrical body. That's what they couldn't understand, because in this age of the full understanding for stretches of values in favor of self-realization of any kind, it was a completely foreign concept."

To make this excellent metaphor mathematically correct,
change "geometrical body" to "space"… as in

"For Princeton's Class of 2007"

Review of a 2004 production of a 1972 Tom Stoppard play, "Jumpers"–

John Lahr on Tom Stoppard's play Jumpers

Related material:

Knight Moves (Log24, Jan. 16),
Kindergarten Theology (St. Bridget's Day, 2008),
and

The image “My space -(the affine space of six dimensions over the two-element field
(Click on image for details.)

Thursday, February 1, 2007

Thursday February 1, 2007

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 7:59 AM
Change

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The above is from
Feb. 15, 2006.

"I don't believe in an afterlife, so I think this is it, and I'm trying to spend my time as best I can, and I'm trying to spend my time so I'm proud of what I've done, and I try not to do any things that I'm not proud of."

Jim Gray, 2002 interview (pdf)
 

Commencement Address (doc)
to Computer Science Division,
College of Letters and Science,
University of California, Berkeley,
by Jim Gray,
May 25, 2003:

"I was part of Berkeley's class of 1965. Things have changed a lot since then….

So, what's that got to do with you? Well, there is going to be MORE change…. Indeed, change is accelerating– Vernor Vinge suggests we are approaching singularities when social, scientific and economic change are so rapid that we cannot imagine what will happen next.  These futurists predict humanity will become post-human. Now, THAT! is change– a lot more than I have seen.

If it happens, the singularity will happen in your lifetime– and indeed, you are likely to make it happen."

 

I Ching, Hexagram 39

For other singular
sci-fi tales, click on
the above hexagram.


More from Gray's speech:

"I am an optimist. Science is a Faustian bargain– and I am betting on mankind muddling through. I grew up under the threat of atomic war; we've avoided that so far. Information Technology is a Faustian bargain. I am optimistic that we can have the good parts and protect ourselves from the worst part– but I am counting on your help in that."


"Not fare well,
But fare forward, voyagers."

— T. S. Eliot,
"The Dry Salvages"

Tuesday, October 31, 2006

Tuesday October 31, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 PM
To Announce a Faith

From 7/07, an art review from The New York Times:

Endgame Art?
It's Borrow, Sample and Multiply
in an Exhibition at Bard College

"The show has an endgame, end-time mood….

I would call all these strategies fear of form…. the dismissal of originality is perhaps the oldest ploy in the postmodern playbook. To call yourself an artist at all is by definition to announce a faith, however unacknowledged, in some form of originality, first for yourself, second, perhaps, for the rest of us.

Fear of form above all means fear of compression– of an artistic focus that condenses experiences, ideas and feelings into something whole, committed and visually comprehensible."

— Roberta Smith

It is doubtful that Smith
 would consider the
following "found" art an
example of originality.

It nevertheless does
"announce a faith."


The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/061031-PAlottery2.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.


"First for yourself"

Today's mid-day
Pennsylvania number:
707

See Log24 on 7/07
and the above review.
 

"Second, perhaps,
for the rest of us"

Today's evening
Pennsylvania number:
384

This number is an
example of what the
reviewer calls "compression"–

"an artistic focus that condenses
 experiences, ideas and feelings
into something
whole, committed
 and visually comprehensible."

"Experiences"

See (for instance)

Joan Didion's writings
(1160 pages, 2.35 pounds)
on "the shifting phantasmagoria
which is our actual experience."

"Ideas"

See Plato.

"Feelings"

See A Wrinkle in Time.

"Whole"

The automorphisms
of the tesseract
form a group
of order 384.

"Committed"

See the discussions of
groups of degree 16 in
R. D. Carmichael's classic
Introduction to the Theory
of Groups of Finite Order
.

"Visually comprehensible"

See "Diamond Theory in 1937,"
an excerpt from which
is shown below.

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/Carmichael440abbrev.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The "faith" announced by
the above lottery numbers
on All Hallows' Eve is
perhaps that of the artist
Madeleine L'Engle:

"There is such a thing
as a tesseract.
"

Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Wednesday August 30, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:07 AM
The Seventh Symbol:

A Multicultural Farewell

to a winner of the
Nobel Prize for Literature,
the Egyptian author of
The Seventh Heaven:
Supernatural Stories
 —

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The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified
the seventh symbol."
Stargate

Other versions of
the seventh symbol —

Chinese version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-hexagram20.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

pictorial version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Box.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

algebraic version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Algebra.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and others have pointed out how 'perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and perhaps without the metaphor there would never have been any algebra' …."

— Max Black, Models and Metaphors, Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors, by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press, paperback, 1975, page 25

Monday, August 28, 2006

Monday August 28, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 AM
Today's Sinner:

Augustine of Hippo, who is said to
have died on this date in 430 A.D.

"He is, after all, not merely taking over a Neoplatonic ontology, but he is attempting to combine it with a scriptural tradition of a rather different sort, one wherein the divine attributes most prized in the Greek tradition (e.g. necessity, immutability, and atemporal eternity) must somehow be combined with the personal attributes (e.g. will, justice, and historical purpose) of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Augustine

Here is a rather different attempt
to combine the eternal with the temporal:

 

The Eternal

Symbol of necessity,
immutability, and
atemporal eternity:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060828-Cube.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see
finite geometry of
the square and cube
.

The Temporal

Symbol of the
God of Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060828-Cloud.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see
Under God
(Aug. 11, 2006)

The eternal
combined with
the temporal:

 

Singer 63-cycle in the Galois field GF(64) used to order the I Ching hexagrams

Related material:

Hitler's Still Point and
the previous entry.
 

Tuesday, July 18, 2006

Tuesday July 18, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

Sacred Order

In memory of Philip Rieff, who died on July 1, 2006:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060604-Roots.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Related material:

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and

The image ?http://www.log24.com/theory/images/MySpace.jpg? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see the
five Log24 entries ending
on the morning of
Midsummer Day, 2006.

Thanks to University Diaries for pointing out the essay on Rieff.
 
That essay says Rieff had "a dense, knotty, ironic style designed to warn off impatient readers. You had to unpack his aphorisms carefully. And this took a while. As a result, his thinking had a time-release effect." Good for him.  For a related essay (time-release effect unknown), see Hitler's Still Point: A Hate Speech for Harvard.

Friday, June 23, 2006

Friday June 23, 2006

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM
Go with the Flow
continued

Review of a
Feb. 15, 2006, entry:

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The image ?http://www.log24.com/images/IChing/WilhelmHellmut.gif? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Wednesday, March 29, 2006

Wednesday March 29, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 8:00 PM

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/Carmichael440.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Note: Carmichael's reference is to
A. Emch, "Triple and multiple systems, their geometric configurations and groups," Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 31 (1929), 25–42.

"There is such a thing as a tesseract."
A Wrinkle in Time

Wednesday, February 15, 2006

Wednesday February 15, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:07 AM
Anthony Hopkins
Writes Screenplay
About God, Life & Death

These topics may be illuminated
by a study of the Chinese classics.

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The image “http://www.log24.com/images/IChing/WilhelmHellmut.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

If we replace the Chinese word "I"
(change, transformation) with the
word "permutation," the relevance
of Western mathematics (which
some might call "the Logos") to
the I Ching ("Changes Classic")
beomes apparent.

Related material:

Hitler's Still Point,
Jung's Imago,
Solomon's Cube,
Geometry of the I Ching,
and Globe Award.

Yesterday's Valentine
may also have some relevance.

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Tuesday September 14, 2004

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:00 PM

The Square Wheel

Harmonic analysis may be based either on the circular (i.e., trigonometric) functions or on the square (i. e., Walsh) functions.  George Mackey's masterly historical survey showed that the discovery of Fourier analysis, based on the circle, was of comparable importance (within mathematics) to the discovery (within general human history) of the wheel.  Harmonic analysis based on square functions– the "square wheel," as it were– is also not without its importance.

For some observations of Stephen Wolfram on square-wheel analysis, see pp. 573 ff. in Wolfram's magnum opus, A New Kind of Science (Wolfram Media, May 14, 2002).  Wolfram's illustration of this topic is closely related, as it happens, to a note on the symmetry of finite-geometry hyperplanes that I wrote in 1986.  A web page pointing out this same symmetry in Walsh functions was archived on Oct. 30, 2001.

That web page is significant (as later versions point out) partly because it shows that just as the phrase "the circular functions" is applied to the trigonometric functions, the phrase "the square functions" might well be applied to Walsh functions– which have, in fact, properties very like those of the trig functions.  For details, see Symmetry of Walsh Functions, updated today.

"While the reader may draw many a moral from our tale, I hope that the story is of interest for its own sake.  Moreover, I hope that it may inspire others, participants or observers, to preserve the true and complete record of our mathematical times."

From Error-Correcting Codes
Through Sphere Packings
To Simple Groups
,
by Thomas M. Thompson,
Mathematical Association of America, 1983

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