Log24

Friday, September 25, 2015

A Great Moonshine

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 8:45 PM

Pope's 'have seen a great light' homily on 9/25/15

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Introduction to Yau

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:00 PM 

Home page of Doctor Yau

This is related somewhat distantly to Mathieu moonshine.

A note on the somewhat distant relation —

Illustration of K3 surface related to Mathieu moonshine

See also Kummer in this journal.

Friday, March 13, 2015

Mathieu Moonshine

Filed under: General — m759 @ 1:26 PM

(Continued from yesterday's "earlier references" link.)

Yesterday at the Simons Foundation's Quanta Magazine :

See also earlier Log24 references to Mathieu moonshine .
I do not know the origin of this succinct phrase, taken from
an undated web page of Anne Taormina.

Friday, July 25, 2014

Magic in the Moonshine

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

“The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the whole meaning
of which lies within the shell of a cracked nut. But Marlow was not
typical (if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the
meaning of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside,
enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a
haze, in the likeness of one of these misty halos that sometimes
are made visible by the spectral illumination of moonshine.”

— Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness

“By groping toward the light we are made to realize
how deep the darkness is around us.”

— Arthur Koestler, The Call Girls: A Tragi-Comedy,
Random House, 1973, page 118

Spectral evidence is a form of evidence
based upon dreams and visions.” —Wikipedia

See also Moonshine (May 15, 2014) and, from the date of the above
New York Times  item, two posts tagged Wunderkammer .

Related material: From the Spectrum program of the Mathematical
Association of America, some non-spectral evidence.

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Moonshine

Filed under: General — m759 @ 2:56 PM

“The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the whole meaning
of which lies within the shell of a cracked nut. But Marlow was not
typical (if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the
meaning of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside,
enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a
haze, in the likeness of one of these misty halos that sometimes
are made visible by the spectral illumination of moonshine.”

— Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness

Photo of full moon over Oslo last night by Josefine Lyche:

A scene from my film viewing last night:

Some background (click to enlarge):

Note:

The “I, Frankenstein” scene above should not be interpreted as
a carrying of Martin Gardner through a lyche gate.  Gardner
is, rather, symbolized by the asterisk in the first image from
the above Google search.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Moonshine II

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , , — m759 @ 10:31 AM

(Continued from yesterday)

The foreword by Wolf Barth in the 1990 Cambridge U. Press
reissue of Hudson's 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface
covers some of the material in yesterday's post Moonshine.

The distinction that Barth described in 1990 was also described, and illustrated,
in my 1986 note "Picturing the smallest projective 3-space."  The affine 4-space
over the the finite Galois field GF(2) that Barth describes was earlier described—
within a 4×4 array like that pictured by Hudson in 1905— in a 1979 American
Mathematical Society abstract, "Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring."

"The distinction between Rosenhain and Goepel tetrads
is nothing but the distinction between isotropic and
non-isotropic planes in this affine space over the finite field."

The 1990 paragraph of Barth quoted above may be viewed as a summary
of these facts, and also of my March 17, 2013, note "Rosenhain and Göpel
Tetrads in PG(3,2)
."

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Moonshine

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 4:00 PM

Unexpected connections between areas of mathematics
previously thought to be unrelated are sometimes referred
to as "moonshine."  An example—  the apparent connections
between parts of complex analysis and groups related to the 
large Mathieu group M24. Some recent work on such apparent
connections, by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland, among
others (for instance, Miranda C.N. Cheng and John F.R. Duncan),
involves structures related to Kummer surfaces .
In a classic book, Kummer's Quartic Surface  (1905),
R.W.H.T. Hudson pictured a set of 140 structures, the 80
Rosenhain tetrads and the 60 Göpel tetrads, as 4-element
subsets of a 16-element 4×4 array.  It turns out that these
140 structures are the planes of the finite affine geometry
AG(4,2) of four dimensions over the two-element Galois field.
(See Diamond Theory in 1937.) 

A Google search documents the moonshine
relating Rosenhain's and Göpel's 19th-century work
in complex analysis to M24  via the book of Hudson and
the geometry of the 4×4 square.

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Michaelmas Moonshine

Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:48 PM

Lottery hermeneutics for Michaelmas—

New York Lottery the evening of Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011—

499 and 6985.

For 499, see post  499 in this journal ("Angel Night," Sept. 29, 2002).

For 6985, see a Sunday, 6/9/85, review of Amy's Eyes , a children's book by Richard Kennedy.

"Especially for the adult reader, the narrator's musings comprise many of the book's great pleasures. He discusses the seductiveness of numerology, the 'Wayward Daughter of Mathematics'….''

Edwin J. Kenney Jr.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Mathieu Moonshine

Filed under: General — m759 @ 2:56 PM

The properties of the Mathieu group M 24 have recently interested some physicists

(Click to enlarge.)

IMAGE- July 2011 conference on Mathieu moonshine

For some related papers, see Mendeley.com.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Social Prism

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 4:19 PM

"Douglas Crimp, Who Saw Art Through a Social Prism*,
Is Dead at 74
" — The online New York Times  today

Crimp reportedly died on July 5. This  journal on that date —

* Update of 11:35-11:59 PM the same day — The Times  headline has
been changed, but the phrase "social prism" can still be found in the article's
source code, and the earlier headline found in a Google search —

Another prism note — "Magic in the Moonshine."

Saturday, May 4, 2019

The Chinese Jars of Shing-Tung Yau

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

The title refers to Calabi-Yau spaces.

T. S. Eliot —

Four Quartets

. . . Only by the form, the pattern,
Can words or music reach
The stillness, as a Chinese jar still
Moves perpetually in its stillness.

A less "cosmic" but still noteworthy code — The Golay code.

This resides in a 12-dimensional space over GF(2).

Related material from Plato and R. T. Curtis

Counting symmetries with the orbit-stabilizer theorem

A related Calabi-Yau "Chinese jar" first described in detail in 1905

Illustration of K3 surface related to Mathieu moonshine

A figure that may or may not be related to the 4x4x4 cube that
holds the classical  Chinese "cosmic code" — the I Ching

ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu/pub/hanson/forSha/AK3/old/K3-pix.pdf

Monday, April 23, 2018

Facets

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 AM

Counting symmetries with the orbit-stabilizer theorem

See also the Feb. 17, 2017, post on Bertram Kostant
as well as "Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetry Surfing."

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Sources

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:00 AM

From a Google image search yesterday

Sources (left to right, top to bottom) —

Math Guy (July 16, 2014)
The Galois Tesseract (Sept. 1, 2011)
The Full Force of Roman Law (April 21, 2014)
A Great Moonshine (Sept. 25, 2015)
A Point of Identity (August 8, 2016)
Pascal via Curtis (April 6, 2013)
Correspondences (August 6, 2011)
Symmetric Generation (Sept. 21, 2011)

Saturday, April 9, 2016

Expanding the Spielfeld (continued)

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

"Mr. Conrad was relentless and rigorous in expanding
the parameters of the fields in which he worked."

The New York Times  today

See also Spielfeld in this  journal, as well as Conrad Moonshine.

Friday, April 1, 2016

In His Own Time

Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:30 AM

See also Wall Power and Moonshine and Lion.

Thursday, December 3, 2015

Overarching Symmetry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:45 PM

(Continued)

From p. 34 of the preprint "Snapshots of Conformal Field Theory,"
by Katrin Wendland, arXiv, 11 April 2014

50. Gannon, T.: Much ado about Mathieu (arXiv:1211.5531 [math.RT])

85. Taormina, A., Wendland, K.: The overarching finite symmetry group
of Kummer surfaces in the Mathieu group M24. JHEP  08, 125 (2013)

86. Taormina, A., Wendland, K.: Symmetry-surfing the moduli space
of Kummer K3s (arXiv:1303.2931 [hep-th])

87. Taormina, A., Wendland, K.: A twist in the M24 moonshine story
(arXiv:1303.3221 [hep-th])

The Wendland paper was published on Jan. 7, 2015, in
Mathematical Aspects of Quantum Field Theories ,
edited by Damien Calaque and Thomas Strobl
(Springer Mathematical Physics Studies), pages 89-129.

Friday, August 28, 2015

Art and Space

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

IMAGE- Spielfeld (1982-83), by Wolf Barth
 

            Observatory scene from "Magic in the Moonlight"

"The sixteen nodes… can be parametrized
by the sixteen points in affine four-space
over the tiny field F2 with two elements."

Wolf Barth

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Moon Shadow

Filed under: General — m759 @ 7:07 AM

IMAGE- The diamond theorem and umbral moonshine

"I'm being followed by a moon shadow…."  — Song lyric

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Introduction to Yau

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Home page of Doctor Yau

This is related somewhat distantly to Mathieu moonshine.

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Mathematics and Narrative (continued)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 AM

Mathematics:

A review of posts from earlier this month —

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Moonshine

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 4:00 PM

Unexpected connections between areas of mathematics
previously thought to be unrelated are sometimes referred
to as "moonshine."  An example—  the apparent connections
between parts of complex analysis and groups related to the
large Mathieu group M24. Some recent work on such apparent
connections, by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland, among
others (for instance, Miranda C.N. Cheng and John F.R. Duncan),
involves structures related to Kummer surfaces .
In a classic book, Kummer's Quartic Surface  (1905),
R.W.H.T. Hudson pictured a set of 140 structures, the 80
Rosenhain tetrads and the 60 Göpel tetrads, as 4-element
subsets of a 16-element 4×4 array.  It turns out that these
140 structures are the planes of the finite affine geometry
AG(4,2) of four dimensions over the two-element Galois field.
(See Diamond Theory in 1937.)

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Moonshine II

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags:  — m759 @ 10:31 AM

(Continued from yesterday)

The foreword by Wolf Barth in the 1990 Cambridge U. Press
reissue of Hudson's 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface
covers some of the material in yesterday's post Moonshine.

The distinction that Barth described in 1990 was also described, and illustrated,
in my 1986 note "Picturing the smallest projective 3-space."  The affine 4-space
over the the finite Galois field GF(2) that Barth describes was earlier described—
within a 4×4 array like that pictured by Hudson in 1905— in a 1979 American
Mathematical Society abstract, "Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring."

"The distinction between Rosenhain and Goepel tetrads
is nothing but the distinction between isotropic and
non-isotropic planes in this affine space over the finite field."

The 1990 paragraph of Barth quoted above may be viewed as a summary
of these facts, and also of my March 17, 2013, note "Rosenhain and Göpel
Tetrads in PG(3,2)
."

Narrative:

Aooo.

Happy birthday to Stephen King.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Kernel and Glow

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 11:01 AM

"The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the whole meaning
of which lies within the shell of a cracked nut. But Marlow was not
typical (if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the
meaning of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside,
enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a
haze, in the likeness of one of these misty halos that sometimes
are made visible by the spectral illumination of moonshine."

— Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness

Kernel — See Nocciolo.

Glow — See Moonshine and Moonshine II.

See also Cold Open (Jan. 29, 2011) and
Where Entertainment is God (Aug. 25, 2013).

Sunday, July 7, 2013

Mere 61

Filed under: General — m759 @ 9:00 AM

Today is the 61st anniversary of the publication
of the book Mere Christianity , by C. S. Lewis.

In its honor, here is a link to "Hexagram 61
in this journal.

See also "Moonshine and Lion."

Monday, June 10, 2013

Galois Coordinates

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:30 PM

Today's previous post on coordinate systems
suggests a look at the phrase "Galois coordinates."

A search shows that the phrase, though natural,
has apparently not been used before 2011* for solutions
to what Hermann Weyl called "the relativity problem."

A thorough historical essay on Galois coordinatization
in this sense would require more academic resources
than I have available. It would likely describe a number
of applications of Galois-field coordinates to square
(and perhaps to cubical) arrays that were studied before
1976, the date of my Diamond Theory  monograph.

But such a survey might not  find any such pre-1976
coordinatization of a 4×4 array  by the 16 elements
of the vector 4-space  over the Galois field with two
elements, GF(2).

Such coordinatizations are important because of their
close relationship to the Mathieu group 24 .

See a preprint by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland,
"The overarching finite symmetry group of Kummer
surfaces in the Mathieu group 24 ," with its remark
denying knowledge of any such coordinatization
prior to a 1989 paper by R. T. Curtis.

Related material: 

Some images related to Galois coordinates, excerpted
from a Google search today (click to enlarge)—

*  A rather abstract  2011 paper that uses the phrase
   "Galois coordinates" may have some implications 
   for the naive form of the relativity problem
   related to square and cubical arrays.

Saturday, May 11, 2013

Core

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Promotional description of a new book:

"Like Gödel, Escher, Bach  before it, Surfaces and Essences  will profoundly enrich our understanding of our own minds. By plunging the reader into an extraordinary variety of colorful situations involving language, thought, and memory, by revealing bit by bit the constantly churning cognitive mechanisms normally completely hidden from view, and by discovering in them one central, invariant core— the incessant, unconscious quest for strong analogical links to past experiences— this book puts forth a radical and deeply surprising new vision of the act of thinking."

"Like Gödel, Escher, Bach  before it…."

Or like Metamagical Themas

Rubik core:

Swarthmore Cube Project, 2008

Non- Rubik cores:

Of the odd  nxnxn cube:

Of the even  nxnxn cube:

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/cube2x2x2.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Related material: The Eightfold Cube and

"A core component in the construction
is a 3-dimensional vector space  over F."

—  Page 29 of "A twist in the M24 moonshine story," 
      by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland.
      (Submitted to the arXiv on 13 Mar 2013.)

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Logline

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 9:29 AM

Found this morning in a search:

logline  is a one-sentence summary of your script.
www.scriptologist.com/Magazine/Tips/Logline/logline.html
It's the short blurb in TV guides that tells you what a movie
is about and helps you decide if you're interested 

The search was suggested by a screenwriting weblog post,
"Loglines: WHAT are you doing?".

What is your story about?
No, seriously, WHAT are you writing about?
Who are the characters? What happens to them?
Where does it take place? What’s the theme?
What’s the style? There are nearly a million
little questions to answer when you set out
to tell a story. But it all starts with one
super, overarching question.
What are you writing about? This is the first
big idea that we pull out of the ether, sometimes
before we even have any characters.
What is your story about?

The screenwriting post was found in an earlier search for
the highlighted phrase.

The screenwriting post was dated December 15, 2009.

What I am doing now  is checking for synchronicity.

This  weblog on December 15, 2009, had a post
titled A Christmas Carol. That post referred to my 1976
monograph titled Diamond Theory .

I guess the script I'm summarizing right now is about
the heart of that theory, a group of 322,560 permutations
that preserve the symmetry of a family of graphic designs.

For that group in action, see the Diamond 16 Puzzle.

The "super overarching" phrase was used to describe
this same group in a different context:

IMAGE- Anne Taormina on 'Mathieu Moonshine' and the 'super overarching symmetry group'

This is from "Mathieu Moonshine," a webpage by Anne Taormina.

A logline summarizing my  approach to that group:

Finite projective geometry explains
the surprising symmetry properties
of some simple graphic designs— 
found, for instance, in quilts.

The story thus summarized is perhaps not destined for movie greatness.

Sunday, April 28, 2013

C’mon Baby…

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 3:13 AM
 

Let's do the twist.

The image at left
is from a poster
for a film released
on March 28, 2003.

See this journal
on that date.

A phrase from yesterday's noon post:

Sinking the Magic 8-Ball .

A scene from the above film is related to this phrase.
Another image from the film poster:

A review of the film:

"The final 'twist' seems to negate the entire story,
like a bad shaggy-dog joke."

Such a joke:

“Words and numbers are of equal value,
  for, in the cloak of knowledge,
  one is warp and the other woof.”

— The princesses Rhyme and Reason
      in The Phantom Tollbooth

"A core component in the construction
is a 3-dimensional vector space over F."

—  Page 29 of "A twist in the M24 moonshine story,"
      by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland.
      (Submitted to the arXiv on 13 Mar 2013.)

The number of points in such a space is, of course, 8.

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Mark and Remark

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 11:00 AM

“Fact and fiction weave in and out of novels like a shell game.” —R.B. Kitaj

Not just novels.

Fact: 

IMAGE- Anne Taormina on 'Mathieu Moonshine' and the 'super overarching symmetry group'

The mark preceding A in the above denotes the semidirect product.

Symbol from the box-style
I Ching  (Cullinane, 1/6/89).
This is Hexagram 55,
“Abundance [Fullness].”

The mathematical quote, from last evening’s Symmetry, is from Anne Taormina.

The I Ching  remark is not.

Another version of Abbondanza 

IMAGE- Taormina sunset from inabbondanza.com on June 22, 2009

Fiction:

Found in Translation and the giorno  June 22, 2009here.

Friday, April 26, 2013

Symmetry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:00 PM

Anne Taormina on Mathieu Moonshine —

IMAGE- Anne Taormina on 'Mathieu Moonshine' and the 'super overarching symmetry group'

This is, of course, the same group (of order 322,560) underlying the Diamond 16 Puzzle.

The Cruelest Month continues…

Filed under: General — m759 @ 5:24 PM

"Well in North Carolina…" — George Jones

For those averse to white lightning —

A link in yesterday 's 5:24 PM post yields moonshine.

See also Title and 24 Hour Psycho.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Speak, Memory

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 8:28 PM

"… the effective work of memory is the very definition of art."

— "In Memoriam: Chris Marker," by Richard Brody,
      New Yorker  weblog post, July 30, 2012

New York Lottery this evening: 178, 0772.

Definition:  See 178 on May 25, 2012.
Art:  See 772 on Nov. 21, 2010 and Harvard Black Diamond.

Moonshine:
The time of this post, 8:28, may be taken as
a reference to the date, 8/28, of the Feast of St. Augustine.
Augustine's remarks on memory are not without interest.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

In a Nutshell

Filed under: General — m759 @ 9:00 PM

(Continued)

"The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity,
the whole meaning of which
lies within the shell of a cracked nut.
But Marlow was not typical
(if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted),
and to him the meaning of an episode
was not inside like a kernel but outside,
enveloping the tale which brought it out
only as a glow brings out a haze,
in the likeness of one of these misty halos
that sometimes are made visible by
the spectral illumination of moonshine."

— Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness

Friday, December 23, 2011

Star Quality

Filed under: General — m759 @ 1:09 AM

(Continued)

IMAGE- NYT obits: Jacob Goldman, Doe Avedon, Don Sharp

"The horror! The horror!"

IMAGE- Alyssa Milano in 'Embrace of the Vampire'

Friday, June 24, 2011

Just One More Thing…

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 11:59 PM

THESEUS

Moonshine and Lion
are left to bury the dead.

DEMETRIUS

Ay, and Wall too.

BOTTOM

[Starting up] No assure you;
the wall is down
that parted their fathers.

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110624-WingsOfDesire-Wall.jpg

Click image for details.

Sunday, April 3, 2011

On to Chicago!

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Commentary on last night

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11/110403-Macushla.jpg

Tonight: The After-Party.

In related news

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11/110403-TorinoApocalypse.jpg

"The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the whole meaning of which
lies within the shell of a cracked nut. But Marlow was not typical
(if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the meaning
of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside, enveloping the tale
which brought it out only as a glow brings out a haze, in the likeness of
one of these misty halos that sometimes are made visible by
the spectral illumination of moonshine."

– Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness , quoted here in
   Cold Open (Saturday night, January 29, 2011)

Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Labyrinth of the Line

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:24 AM

“Yo sé de un laberinto griego que es una línea única, recta.”
—Borges, “La Muerte y la Brújula”

“I know of one Greek labyrinth which is a single straight line.”
—Borges, “Death and the Compass”

Another single-line labyrinth—

Robert A. Wilson on the projective line with 24 points
and its image in the Miracle Octad Generator (MOG)—

IMAGE- Robert Wilson on the projective line with 24 points and its image in the MOG

Related material —

The remarks of Scott Carnahan at Math Overflow on October 25th, 2010
and the remarks at Log24 on that same date.

A search in the latter for miracle octad is updated below.

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11/110302-MOGsearch.jpg

This search (here in a customized version) provides some context for the
Benedictine University discussion described here on February 25th and for
the number 759 mentioned rather cryptically in last night’s “Ariadne’s Clue.”

Update of March 3— For some historical background from 1931, see The Mathieu Relativity Problem.

Monday, February 7, 2011

Reappearing All Over Again

Filed under: General — m759 @ 1:06 PM

A sequel to "A Reappearing Number," "Reappearing Continued," and "Classical Requiem"—

IMAGE- Page 168 of 'Moonshine Beyond the Monster,' on the number 24

A connection to the numerology of today's date, The Seventh— "Frame Tale." (Click, then scroll down.)

Saturday, January 29, 2011

Cold Open

Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:16 PM

Kernel and Moonshine

"The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the whole meaning of which lies within the shell of a cracked nut. But Marlow was not typical (if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the meaning of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside, enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a haze, in the likeness of one of these misty halos that sometimes are made visible by the spectral illumination of moonshine."

— Joseph Conrad in Heart of Darkness

Some background—

Spider and Snake on cover of Fritz Leiber's novel Big Time

An image from yesterday's search
God, TIme, Hopkins

"We got tom-toms over here bigger than a monster
Bla Bla Bla Bla Bla Bla Bla Bla"

— "Massive Attack"

"I'm just checking your math on that. Yes, I got the same thing."

— "The Social Network"

"Live… Uh, check thatFrom New York, it's Saturday Night! "

Saturday, August 2, 2008

Saturday August 2, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 6:23 AM
Prattle

There is an article in today’s Telegraph on mathematician Simon Phillips Norton– co-author, with John Horton Conway, of the rather famous paper “Monstrous Moonshine” (Bull. London Math. Soc. 11, 308–339, 1979).
“Simon studies one of the most complicated groups of all: the Monster. He is, still, the world expert on it ….

Simon tells me he has a quasi-religious faith in the Monster. One day, he says, … the Monster will expose the structure of the universe.

… although Simon says he is keen for me to write a book about him and his work on the Monster and his obsession with buses, he doesn’t like talking, has no sense of anecdotes or extended conversation, and can’t remember (or never paid any attention to) 90 per cent of the things I want him to tell me about in his past. It is not modesty. Simon is not modest or immodest: he just has no self-curiosity. To Simon, Simon is a collection of disparate facts and no interpretative glue. He is a man without adjectives. His speech is made up almost entirely of short bursts of grunts and nouns.

This is the main reason why we spent three weeks together …. I needed to find a way to make him prattle.”

Those in search of prattle and interpretive glue should consult Anthony Judge’s essay “Potential Psychosocial Significance of Monstrous Moonshine: An Exceptional Form of Symmetry as a Rosetta Stone for Cognitive Frameworks.”  This was cited here in Thursday’s entry “Symmetry in Review.”  (That entry is just a list of items related in part by synchronicity, in part by mathematical content. The list, while meaningful to me and perhaps a few others, is also lacking in prattle and interpretive glue.)

Those in search of knowledge, rather than glue and prattle, should consult Symmetry and the Monster, by Mark Ronan.  If they have a good undergraduate education in mathematics, Terry Gannon‘s survey paper “Monstrous Moonshine: The First Twenty-Five Years” (pdf) and book– Moonshine Beyond the Monster— may also be of interest.

Thursday, July 31, 2008

Thursday July 31, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 12:00 PM
Symmetry in Review

“Put bluntly, who is kidding whom?”

Anthony Judge, draft of
“Potential Psychosocial Significance
of Monstrous Moonshine:
An Exceptional Form of Symmetry
as a Rosetta Stone for
Cognitive Frameworks,”
dated September 6, 2007.

Good question.

Also from
September 6, 2007 —
the date of
Madeleine L’Engle‘s death —

 
Pavarotti takes a bow
Related material:

1. The performance of a work by
Richard Strauss,
Death and Transfiguration,”
(Tod und Verklärung, Opus 24)
by the Chautauqua Symphony
at Chautauqua Institution on
July 24, 2008

2. Headline of a music review
in today’s New York Times:

Welcoming a Fresh Season of
Transformation and Death

3. The picture of the R. T. Curtis
Miracle Octad Generator
on the cover of the book
Twelve Sporadic Groups:

Cover of 'Twelve Sporadic Groups'

4. Freeman Dyson’s hope, quoted by
Gorenstein in 1986, Ronan in 2006,
and Judge in 2007, that the Monster
group is “built in some way into
the structure of the universe.”

5. Symmetry from Plato to
the Four-Color Conjecture

6. Geometry of the 4×4 Square

7. Yesterday’s entry,
Theories of Everything

Coda:

There is such a thing

Tesseract
     as a tesseract.

— Madeleine L’Engle

Cover of The New Yorker, April 12, 2004-- Roz Chast, Easter Eggs

For a profile of
L’Engle, click on
the Easter eggs.

Tuesday, January 6, 2004

Tuesday January 6, 2004

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 10:10 PM

720 in the Book

Searching for an epiphany on this January 6 (the Feast of the Epiphany), I started with Harvard Magazine, the current issue of January-February 2004.

An article titled On Mathematical Imagination concludes by looking forward to

“a New Instauration that will bring mathematics, at last, into its rightful place in our lives: a source of elation….”

Seeking the source of the phrase “new instauration,” I found it was due to Francis Bacon, who “conceived his New Instauration as the fulfilment of a Biblical prophecy and a rediscovery of ‘the seal of God on things,’ ” according to a web page by Nieves Mathews.

Hmm.

The Mathews essay leads to Peter Pesic, who, it turns out, has written a book that brings us back to the subject of mathematics:

Abel’s Proof:  An Essay
on the Sources and Meaning
of Mathematical Unsolvability

by Peter Pesic,
MIT Press, 2003

From a review:

“… the book is about the idea that polynomial equations in general cannot be solved exactly in radicals….

Pesic concludes his account after Abel and Galois… and notes briefly (p. 146) that following Abel, Jacobi, Hermite, Kronecker, and Brioschi, in 1870 Jordan proved that elliptic modular functions suffice to solve all polynomial equations.  The reader is left with little clarity on this sequel to the story….”

— Roger B. Eggleton, corrected version of a review in Gazette Aust. Math. Soc., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 242-244

Here, it seems, is my epiphany:

“Elliptic modular functions suffice to solve all polynomial equations.”


Incidental Remarks
on Synchronicity,
Part I

Those who seek a star
on this Feast of the Epiphany
may click here.


Most mathematicians are (or should be) familiar with the work of Abel and Galois on the insolvability by radicals of quintic and higher-degree equations.

Just how such equations can be solved is a less familiar story.  I knew that elliptic functions were involved in the general solution of a quintic (fifth degree) equation, but I was not aware that similar functions suffice to solve all polynomial equations.

The topic is of interest to me because, as my recent web page The Proof and the Lie indicates, I was deeply irritated by the way recent attempts to popularize mathematics have sown confusion about modular functions, and I therefore became interested in learning more about such functions.  Modular functions are also distantly related, via the topic of “moonshine” and via the  “Happy Family” of the Monster group and the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis, to my own work on symmetries of 4×4 matrices.


Incidental Remarks
on Synchronicity,
Part II

There is no Log24 entry for
December 30, 2003,
the day John Gregory Dunne died,
but see this web page for that date.


Here is what I was able to find on the Web about Pesic’s claim:

From Wolfram Research:

From Solving the Quintic —

“Some of the ideas described here can be generalized to equations of higher degree. The basic ideas for solving the sextic using Klein’s approach to the quintic were worked out around 1900. For algebraic equations beyond the sextic, the roots can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions in several variables or in terms of Siegel modular functions.”

From Siegel Theta Function —

“Umemura has expressed the roots of an arbitrary polynomial in terms of Siegel theta functions. (Mumford, D. Part C in Tata Lectures on Theta. II. Jacobian Theta Functions and Differential Equations. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 1984.)”

From Polynomial

“… the general quintic equation may be given in terms of the Jacobi theta functions, or hypergeometric functions in one variable.  Hermite and Kronecker proved that higher order polynomials are not soluble in the same manner. Klein showed that the work of Hermite was implicit in the group properties of the icosahedron.  Klein’s method of solving the quintic in terms of hypergeometric functions in one variable can be extended to the sextic, but for higher order polynomials, either hypergeometric functions in several variables or ‘Siegel functions’ must be used (Belardinelli 1960, King 1996, Chow 1999). In the 1880s, Poincaré created functions which give the solution to the nth order polynomial equation in finite form. These functions turned out to be ‘natural’ generalizations of the elliptic functions.”

Belardinelli, G. “Fonctions hypergéométriques de plusieurs variables er résolution analytique des équations algébrique générales.” Mémoral des Sci. Math. 145, 1960.

King, R. B. Beyond the Quartic Equation. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 1996.

Chow, T. Y. “What is a Closed-Form Number.” Amer. Math. Monthly 106, 440-448, 1999. 

From Angel Zhivkov,

Preprint series,
Institut für Mathematik,
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin:

“… discoveries of Abel and Galois had been followed by the also remarkable theorems of Hermite and Kronecker:  in 1858 they independently proved that we can solve the algebraic equations of degree five by using an elliptic modular function….  Kronecker thought that the resolution of the equation of degree five would be a special case of a more general theorem which might exist.  This hypothesis was realized in [a] few cases by F. Klein… Jordan… showed that any algebraic equation is solvable by modular functions.  In 1984 Umemura realized the Kronecker idea in his appendix to Mumford’s book… deducing from a formula of Thomae… a root of [an] arbitrary algebraic equation by Siegel modular forms.”  

— “Resolution of Degree Less-than-or-equal-to Six Algebraic Equations by Genus Two Theta Constants


Incidental Remarks
on Synchronicity,
Part III

From Music for Dunne’s Wake:

Heaven was kind of a hat on the universe,
a lid that kept everything underneath it
where it belonged.”

— Carrie Fisher,
Postcards from the Edge

     

720 in  
the Book”

and
Paradise

“The group Sp4(F2) has order 720,”
as does S6. — Angel Zhivkov, op. cit.

Those seeking
“a rediscovery of
‘the seal of God on things,’ “
as quoted by Mathews above,
should see
The Unity of Mathematics
and the related note
Sacerdotal Jargon.

For more remarks on synchronicity
that may or may not be relevant
to Harvard Magazine and to
the annual Joint Mathematics Meetings
that start tomorrow in Phoenix, see

Log24, June 2003.

For the relevance of the time
of this entry, 10:10, see

  1. the reference to Paradise
    on the “postcard” above, and
  2. Storyline (10/10, 2003).

Related recreational reading:

Labyrinth



The Shining

Shining Forth

Monday, April 28, 2003

Monday April 28, 2003

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:07 AM

ART WARS:

Toward Eternity

April is Poetry Month, according to the Academy of American Poets.  It is also Mathematics Awareness Month, funded by the National Security Agency; this year's theme is "Mathematics and Art."

Some previous journal entries for this month seem to be summarized by Emily Dickinson's remarks:

"Because I could not stop for Death–
He kindly stopped for me–
The Carriage held but just Ourselves–
And Immortality.

………………………
Since then–'tis Centuries–and yet
Feels shorter than the Day
I first surmised the Horses' Heads
Were toward Eternity– "

 

Consider the following journal entries from April 7, 2003:
 

Math Awareness Month

April is Math Awareness Month.
This year's theme is "mathematics and art."


 

An Offer He Couldn't Refuse

Today's birthday:  Francis Ford Coppola is 64.

"There is a pleasantly discursive treatment
of Pontius Pilate's unanswered question
'What is truth?'."


H. S. M. Coxeter, 1987, introduction to Richard J. Trudeau's remarks on the "Story Theory" of truth as opposed to the "Diamond Theory" of truth in The Non-Euclidean Revolution

 

From a website titled simply Sinatra:

"Then came From Here to Eternity. Sinatra lobbied hard for the role, practically getting on his knees to secure the role of the street smart punk G.I. Maggio. He sensed this was a role that could revive his career, and his instincts were right. There are lots of stories about how Columbia Studio head Harry Cohn was convinced to give the role to Sinatra, the most famous of which is expanded upon in the horse's head sequence in The Godfather. Maybe no one will know the truth about that. The one truth we do know is that the feisty New Jersey actor won the Academy Award as Best Supporting Actor for his work in From Here to Eternity. It was no looking back from then on."

From a note on geometry of April 28, 1985:

 
The "horse's head" figure above is from a note I wrote on this date 18 years ago.  The following journal entry from April 4, 2003, gives some details:
 

The Eight

Today, the fourth day of the fourth month, plays an important part in Katherine Neville's The Eight.  Let us honor this work, perhaps the greatest bad novel of the twentieth century, by reflecting on some properties of the number eight.  Consider eight rectangular cells arranged in an array of four rows and two columns.  Let us label these cells with coordinates, then apply a permutation.

 


 Decimal 
labeling

 
Binary
labeling


Algebraic
labeling


Permutation
labeling

 

The resulting set of arrows that indicate the movement of cells in a permutation (known as a Singer 7-cycle) outlines rather neatly, in view of the chess theme of The Eight, a knight.  This makes as much sense as anything in Neville's fiction, and has the merit of being based on fact.  It also, albeit rather crudely, illustrates the "Mathematics and Art" theme of this year's Mathematics Awareness Month.

The visual appearance of the "knight" permutation is less important than the fact that it leads to a construction (due to R. T. Curtis) of the Mathieu group M24 (via the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator), which in turn leads logically to the Monster group and to related "moonshine" investigations in the theory of modular functions.   See also "Pieces of Eight," by Robert L. Griess.

Friday, April 4, 2003

Friday April 4, 2003

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:33 PM

The Eight

Today, the fourth day of the fourth month, plays an important part in Katherine Neville's The Eight.  Let us honor this work, perhaps the greatest bad novel of the twentieth century, by reflecting on some properties of the number eight.  Consider eight rectangular cells arranged in an array of four rows and two columns.  Let us label these cells with coordinates, then apply a permutation.


Decimal 
labeling


Binary
labeling


Algebraic
labeling

IMAGE- Knight figure for April 4
Permutation
labeling

 

The resulting set of arrows that indicate the movement of cells in a permutation (known as a Singer 7-cycle) outlines rather neatly, in view of the chess theme of The Eight, a knight.  This makes as much sense as anything in Neville's fiction, and has the merit of being based on fact.  It also, albeit rather crudely, illustrates the "Mathematics and Art" theme of this year's Mathematics Awareness Month.  (See the 4:36 PM entry.)

 

 

The visual appearance of the "knight" permutation is less important than the fact that it leads to a construction (due to R. T. Curtis) of the Mathieu group M24 (via the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator), which in turn leads logically to the Monster group and to related "moonshine" investigations in the theory of modular functions.   See also "Pieces of Eight," by Robert L. Griess.
 

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