Thursday, June 30, 2016
From Psychoanalytic Aesthetics: The British School ,
by Nicola Glover, Chapter 4 —
In his last theoretical book, Attention and Interpretation (1970), Bion has clearly cast off the mathematical and scientific scaffolding of his earlier writings and moved into the aesthetic and mystical domain. He builds upon the central role of aesthetic intuition and the Keats's notion of the 'Language of Achievement', which
… includes language that is both
a prelude to action and itself a kind of action;
the meeting of psychoanalyst and analysand
is itself an example of this language.^{29.}
Bion distinguishes it from the kind of language which is a substitute for thought and action, a blocking of achievement which is lies [sic ] in the realm of 'preconception' – mindlessness as opposed to mindfulness. The articulation of this language is possible only through love and gratitude; the forces of envy and greed are inimical to it..
This language is expressed only by one who has cast off the 'bondage of memory and desire'. He advised analysts (and this has caused a certain amount of controversy) to free themselves from the tyranny of the past and the future; for Bion believed that in order to make deep contact with the patient's unconscious the analyst must rid himself of all preconceptions about his patient – this superhuman task means abandoning even the desire to cure . The analyst should suspend memories of past experiences with his patient which could act as restricting the evolution of truth. The task of the analyst is to patiently 'wait for a pattern to emerge'. For as T.S. Eliot recognised in Four Quartets , 'only by the form, the pattern / Can words or music reach/ The stillness'.^{30.} The poet also understood that 'knowledge' (in Bion's sense of it designating a 'preconception' which blocks thought, as opposed to his designation of a 'pre conception' which awaits its sensory realisation), 'imposes a pattern and falsifies'
For the pattern is new in every moment
And every moment is a new and shocking
Valuation of all we have ever been.^{31.}
The analyst, by freeing himself from the 'enchainment to past and future', casts off the arbitrary pattern and waits for new aesthetic form to emerge, which will (it is hoped) transform the content of the analytic encounter.
29. Attention and Interpretation (Tavistock, 1970), p. 125
30. Collected Poems (Faber, 1985), p. 194.
31. Ibid., p. 199.

See also the previous posts now tagged Bion.
Preconception as mindlessness is illustrated by Rubik's cube, and
"pre conception" as mindfulness is illustrated by n×n×n Froebel cubes
for n= 1, 2, 3, 4.
Suitably coordinatized, the Froebel cubes become Galois cubes,
and illustrate a new approach to the mathematics of space .
Comments Off on Rubik vs. Galois: Preconception vs. Preconception
Friday, September 9, 2011
(Continued from Abel Prize, August 26)
The situation is rather different when the
underlying Galois field has two rather than
three elements… See Galois Geometry.
The coffee scene from “Bleu”
Related material from this journal:
The Dream of
the Expanded Field
Comments Off on Galois vs. Rubik
Sunday, November 22, 2020
A figure adapted from “Magic Fano Planes,” by
Ben Miesner and David Nash, Pi Mu Epsilon Journal
Vol. 14, No. 1, 1914, CENTENNIAL ISSUE 3 2014
(Fall 2014), pp. 2329 (7 pages) —
Related material — The Eightfold Cube.
Update at 10:51 PM ET the same day —
Essentially the same figure as above appears also in
the second arXiv version (11 Jan. 2016) of . . .
DAVID A. NASH, and JONATHAN NEEDLEMAN.
“When Are Finite Projective Planes Magic?”
Mathematics Magazine, vol. 89, no. 2, 2016, pp. 83–91.
JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.4169/math.mag.89.2.83.
The arXiv versions —
Comments Off on The GaloisFano Plane
Wednesday, May 2, 2018
(A sequel to Foster's Space and Sawyer's Space)
See posts now tagged Galois's Space.
Comments Off on Galois’s Space
Sunday, November 19, 2017
This is a sequel to yesterday's post Cube Space Continued.
Comments Off on Galois Space
Saturday, May 20, 2017
Click image to enlarge.
The above 35 projective lines, within a 4×4 array —
The above 15 projective planes, within a 4×4 array (in white) —
* See Galois Tesseract in this journal.
Comments Off on van Lint and Wilson Meet the Galois Tesseract*
Sunday, August 14, 2016
Continued from earlier posts on Boole vs. Galois.
From a Google image search today for “Galois Boole.”
Click the image to enlarge it.
Comments Off on The BooleGalois Games
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
A very brief introduction:
Comments Off on Galois Space —
Tuesday, January 12, 2016
The above sketch indicates, in a vague, handwaving, fashion,
a connection between Galois spaces and harmonic analysis.
For more details of the connection, see (for instance) yesterday
afternoon's post Space Oddity.
Comments Off on Harmonic Analysis and Galois Spaces
Tuesday, March 24, 2015
Yesterday's post suggests a review of the following —
Andries Brouwer, preprint, 1982:
"The Witt designs, Golay codes and Mathieu groups"
(unpublished as of 2013)
Pages 89:
Substructures of S(5, 8, 24)
An octad is a block of S(5, 8, 24).
Theorem 5.1
Let B_{0} be a fixed octad. The 30 octads disjoint from B_{0}
form a selfcomplementary 3(16,8,3) design, namely
the design of the points and affine hyperplanes in AG(4, 2),
the 4dimensional affine space over F_{2}.
Proof….
… (iv) We have AG(4, 2).
(Proof: invoke your favorite characterization of AG(4, 2)
or PG(3, 2), say DembowskiWagner or Veblen & Young.
An explicit construction of the vector space is also easy….)

Related material: Posts tagged Priority.
Comments Off on Brouwer on the Galois Tesseract
Tuesday, November 25, 2014
For previous remarks on this topic, as it relates to
symmetry axes of the cube, see previous posts tagged Interplay.
The above posts discuss, among other things, the Galois
projective plane of order 3, with 13 points and 13 lines.
These Galois points and lines may be modeled in Euclidean geometry
by the 13 symmetry axes and the 13 rotation planes
of the Euclidean cube. They may also be modeled in Galois geometry
by subsets of the 3x3x3 Galois cube (vector 3space over GF(3)).
The 3×3×3 Galois Cube
Exercise: Is there any such analogy between the 31 points of the
order5 Galois projective plane and the 31 symmetry axes of the
Euclidean dodecahedron and icosahedron? Also, how may the
31 projective points be naturally pictured as lines within the
5x5x5 Galois cube (vector 3space over GF(5))?
Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —
For background to the above exercise, see
pp. 1617 of A Geometrical Picture Book ,
by Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998), esp.
the citation to a 1983 article by Lemay.
Comments Off on EuclideanGalois Interplay
Monday, May 19, 2014
“The Cube was born in 1974 as a teaching tool
to help me and my students better understand
space and 3D. The Cube challenged us to find
order in chaos.”
— Professor Ernő Rubik at Chrome Cube Lab
For a Chinese approach to order and chaos,
see I Ching Cube in this journal.
Comments Off on Rubik Quote
Sunday, March 10, 2013
(Continued)
The 16point affine Galois space:
Further properties of this space:
In Configurations and Squares, see the
discusssion of the Kummer 16_{6} configuration.
Some closely related material:
Comments Off on Galois Space
Monday, March 4, 2013
Continued from February 27, the day Joseph Frank died…
"Throughout the 1940s, he published essays
and criticism in literary journals, and one,
'Spatial Form in Modern Literature'—
a discussion of experimental treatments
of space and time by Eliot, Joyce, Proust,
Pound and others— published in
The Sewanee Review in 1945, propelled him
to prominence as a theoretician."
— Bruce Weber in this morning's print copy
of The New York Times (p. A15, NY edition)
That essay is reprinted in a 1991 collection
of Frank's work from Rutgers University Press:
See also Galois Space and Occupy Space in this journal.
Frank was best known as a biographer of Dostoevsky.
A very loosely related reference… in a recent Log24 post,
Freeman Dyson's praise of a book on the history of
mathematics and religion in Russia:
"The intellectual drama will attract readers
who are interested in mystical religion
and the foundations of mathematics.
The personal drama will attract readers
who are interested in a human tragedy
with characters who met their fates with
exceptional courage."
Frank is survived by, among others, his wife, a mathematician.
Comments Off on Occupy Galois Space
Thursday, February 21, 2013
(Continued)
The previous post suggests two sayings:
"There is such a thing as a Galois space."
— Adapted from Madeleine L'Engle
"For every kind of vampire, there is a kind of cross."
— Thomas Pynchon
Illustrations—
(Click to enlarge.)
Comments Off on Galois Space
Sunday, July 29, 2012
(Continued)
The three parts of the figure in today's earlier post "Defining Form"—
— share the same vectorspace structure:
0 
c 
d 
c + d 
a 
a + c 
a + d 
a + c + d 
b 
b + c 
b + d 
b + c + d 
a + b 
a + b + c 
a + b + d 
a + b +
c + d 
(This vectorspace a b c d diagram is from Chapter 11 of
Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups , by John Horton
Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, first published by Springer
in 1988.)
The fact that any 4×4 array embodies such a structure was implicit in
the diamond theorem (February 1979). Any 4×4 array, regarded as
a model of the finite geometry AG(4, 2), may be called a Galois tesseract.
(So called because of the Galois geometry involved, and because the
16 cells of a 4×4 array with opposite edges identified have the same
adjacency pattern as the 16 vertices of a tesseract (see, for instance,
Coxeter's 1950 "SelfDual Configurations and Regular Graphs," figures
5 and 6).)
A 1982 discussion of a more abstract form of AG(4, 2):
Source:
The above 1982 remarks by Brouwer may or may not have influenced
the drawing of the above 1988 ConwaySloane diagram.
Comments Off on The Galois Tesseract
Thursday, July 12, 2012
An example of lines in a Galois space * —
The 35 lines in the 3dimensional Galois projective space PG(3,2)—
(Click to enlarge.)
There are 15 different individual linear diagrams in the figure above.
These are the points of the Galois space PG(3,2). Each 3set of linear diagrams
represents the structure of one of the 35 4×4 arrays and also represents a line
of the projective space.
The symmetry of the linear diagrams accounts for the symmetry of the
840 possible images in the kaleidoscope puzzle.
* For further details on the phrase "Galois space," see
Beniamino Segre's "On Galois Geometries," Proceedings of the
International Congress of Mathematicians, 1958 [Edinburgh].
(Cambridge U. Press, 1960, 488499.)
(Update of Jan. 5, 2013— This post has been added to finitegeometry.org.)
Comments Off on Galois Space
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Comments Off on Euclid vs. Galois
Saturday, September 3, 2011
A post of September 1, The Galois Tesseract, noted that the interplay
of algebraic and geometric properties within the 4×4 array that forms
twothirds of the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator (MOG) may first have
been described by Cullinane (AMS abstract 79TA37, Notices , Feb. 1979).
Here is some supporting material—
The passage from Carmichael above emphasizes the importance of
the 4×4 square within the MOG.
The passage from Conway and Sloane, in a book whose first edition
was published in 1988, makes explicit the structure of the MOG’s
4×4 square as the affine 4space over the 2element Galois field.
The passage from Curtis (1974, published in 1976) describes 35 sets
of four “special tetrads” within the 4×4 square of the MOG. These
correspond to the 35 sets of four parallel 4point affine planes within
the square. Curtis, however, in 1976 makes no mention of the affine
structure, characterizing his 140 “special tetrads” rather by the parity
of their intersections with the square’s rows and columns.
The affine structure appears in the 1979 abstract mentioned above—
The “35 structures” of the abstract were listed, with an application to
Latinsquare orthogonality, in a note from December 1978—
See also a 1987 article by R. T. Curtis—
Further elementary techniques using the miracle octad generator, by R. T. Curtis. Abstract:
“In this paper we describe various techniques, some of which are already used by devotees of the art, which relate certain maximal subgroups of the Mathieu group M_{24}, as seen in the MOG, to matrix groups over finite fields. We hope to bring out the wealth of algebraic structure* underlying the device and to enable the reader to move freely between these matrices and permutations. Perhaps the MOG was misnamed as simply an ‘octad generator’; in this paper we intend to show that it is in reality a natural diagram of the binary Golay code.”
(Received July 20 1987)
– Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (Series 2) (1989), 32: 345353
* For instance:
Update of Sept. 4— This post is now a page at finitegeometry.org.
Comments Off on The Galois Tesseract (continued)
Thursday, September 1, 2011
Comments Off on The Galois Tesseract
Monday, June 27, 2011
The 3×3×3 Galois Cube
See Unity and Multiplicity.
This cube, unlike Rubik's, is a
purely mathematical structure.
Its properties may be compared
with those of the order2 Galois
cube (of eight subcubes, or
elements ) and the order4 Galois
cube (of 64 elements). The
order3 cube (of 27 elements)
lacks, because it is based on
an odd prime, the remarkable
symmetry properties of its smaller
and larger cube neighbors.
Comments Off on Galois Cube Revisited
Friday, September 17, 2010
Yesterday’s excerpt from von Balthasar supplies some Catholic aesthetic background for Galois geometry.
That approach will appeal to few mathematicians, so here is another.
Euclid’s Window: The Story of Geometry from Parallel Lines to Hyperspace is a book by Leonard Mlodinow published in 2002.
More recently, Mlodinow is the coauthor, with Stephen Hawking, of The Grand Design (published on September 7, 2010).
A review of Mlodinow’s book on geometry—
“This is a shallow book on deep matters, about which the author knows next to nothing.”
— Robert P. Langlands, Notices of the American Mathematical Society, May 2002
The Langlands remark is an apt introduction to Mlodinow’s more recent work.
It also applies to Martin Gardner’s comments on Galois in 2007 and, posthumously, in 2010.
For the latter, see a Google search done this morning—
Here, for future reference, is a copy of the current Google cache of this journal’s “paged=4” page.
Note the link at the bottom of the page in the May 5, 2010, post to Peter J. Cameron’s web journal. Following the link, we find…
For n=4, there is only one factorisation, which we can write concisely as 1234, 1324, 1423. Its automorphism group is the symmetric group S_{4}, and acts as S_{3} on the set of three partitions, as we saw last time; the group of strong automorphisms is the Klein group.
This example generalises, by taking the factorisation to consist of the parallel classes of lines in an affine space over GF(2). The automorphism group is the affine group, and the group of strong automorphisms is its translation subgroup.
See also, in this journal, Window and Window, continued (July 5 and 6, 2010).
Gardner scoffs at the importance of Galois’s last letter —
“Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was
merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers.”
— Last Recreations, page 156
For refutations, see the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society in March 1899 and February 1909.
Comments Off on The Galois Window
Monday, February 22, 2021
A related image —
Related design theory in mathematics —
http://m759.net/wordpress/?p=9221
Wednesday, December 16, 2020
Comments Off on Kramer’s Cross
Sunday, December 6, 2020
The title phrase is ambiguous and should be avoided.
It is used indiscriminately to denote any system of coordinates
written with 0 ‘s and 1 ‘s, whether these two symbols refer to
the Booleanalgebra truth values false and true , to the absence
or presence of elements in a subset , to the elements of the smallest
Galois field, GF(2) , or to the digits of a binary number .
Related material from the Web —
Some related remarks from “Geometry of the 4×4 Square:
Notes by Steven H. Cullinane” (webpage created March 18, 2004) —
A related anonymous change to Wikipedia today —
The deprecated “binary coordinates” phrase occurs in both
old and new versions of the “Square representation” section
on PG(3,2), but at least the misleading remark about Steiner
quadruple systems has been removed.
Comments Off on “Binary Coordinates”
Sunday, November 15, 2020
Comments Off on Map Methods
Friday, September 18, 2020
“WHEN I IMAGINE THE CUBE, I see a structure in motion.
I see the framework of its edges, its corners, and its flexible joints,
and the continuous transformations in front of me (before you start
to worry, I assure you that I can freeze it anytime I like). I don’t see
a static object but a system of dynamic relations. In fact, this is only
half of that system. The other half is the person who handles it.
Just like everything else in our world, a system is defined by
its place within a network of relations—to humans, first of all.”
— Rubik, Erno. Cubed (p. 165). Flatiron Books. Kindle Ed., 2020.
Compare and contrast — Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.
Comments Off on Adoration of the Cube
Thursday, September 17, 2020
Continues in The New York Times :
“One day — ‘I don’t know exactly why,’ he writes — he tried to
put together eight cubes so that they could stick together but
also move around, exchanging places. He made the cubes out
of wood, then drilled a hole in the corners of the cubes to link
them together. The object quickly fell apart.
Many iterations later, Rubik figured out the unique design
that allowed him to build something paradoxical:
a solid, static object that is also fluid….” — Alexandra Alter
Another such object: the eightfold cube .
Comments Off on Structure and Mutability . . .
Friday, September 11, 2020
Kauffman‘s fixation on the work of SpencerBrown is perhaps in part
due to Kauffman’s familiarity with Boolean algebra and his ignorance of
Galois geometry. See other posts now tagged Boole vs. Galois.
See also “A FourColor Epic” (April 16, 2020).
Comments Off on Kauffman on Algebra
Thursday, February 27, 2020
From a search for Maniac in this journal —
Related meditations —
Comments Off on Deep Space Odyssey
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
The Matrix of LéviStrauss —
(From his “Structure and Form: Reflections on a Work by Vladimir Propp.”
Translated from a 1960 work in French. It appeared in English as
Chapter VIII of Structural Anthropology, Volume 2 (U. of Chicago Press, 1976).
Chapter VIII was originally published in Cahiers de l’Institut de Science
Économique Appliquée , No. 9 (Series M, No. 7) (Paris: ISEA, March 1960).)
The structure of the matrix of LéviStrauss —
Illustration from Diamond Theory , by Steven H. Cullinane (1976).
The relevant field of mathematics is not Boolean algebra, but rather
Galois geometry.
Comments Off on Putting the Structure in Structuralism
Wednesday, July 31, 2019
"In the fantasy, Owen is still working on his Rubik’s Cube.
Finally, he finishes — he’s put together all 6 sides."
— "Maniac" Season 1, Episode 9 recap: ‘Utangatta’
by Cynthia Vinney at showsnob.com, Oct. 9, 2018
Related material —
See also Exploded in this journal.
Comments Off on Icelandic Fantasy
Sunday, September 9, 2018
"The role of Desargues's theorem was not understood until
the Desargues configuration was discovered. For example,
the fundamental role of Desargues's theorem in the coordinatization
of synthetic projective geometry can only be understood in the light
of the Desargues configuration.
Thus, even as simple a formal statement as Desargues's theorem
is not quite what it purports to be. The statement of Desargues's theorem
pretends to be definitive, but in reality it is only the tip of an iceberg
of connections with other facts of mathematics."
— From p. 192 of "The Phenomenology of Mathematical Proof,"
by GianCarlo Rota, in Synthese , Vol. 111, No. 2, Proof and Progress
in Mathematics (May, 1997), pp. 183196. Published by: Springer.
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20117627.
Related figures —
Note the 3×3 subsquare containing the triangles ABC, etc.
"That in which space itself is contained" — Wallace Stevens
Comments Off on Plan 9 Continues.
Wednesday, August 15, 2018
” . . . the 3 by 3, the sixsided, threelayer configuration of
the original Rubik’s Cube, which bestows an illusion of brilliance
on those who can solve it.”
— John Branch in the online New York Times today,
“Children of the Cube”:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/15/sports/
cubingusanationalsmaxpark.html
Cubesolving, like other sports, allows for displays of
impressive and admirable skill, if not “brilliance.”
The mathematics — group theory — that is sometimes associated
with Rubik’s Cube is, however, not a sport. See Rubik + Group
in this journal.
Comments Off on An Illusion of Brilliance
Sunday, April 29, 2018
From the online New York Times this afternoon:
Disney now holds nine of the top 10
domestic openings of all time —
six of which are part of the Marvel
Cinematic Universe. “The result is
a reflection of 10 years of work:
of developing this universe, creating
stakes as big as they were, characters
that matter and stories and worlds that
people have come to love,” Dave Hollis,
Disney’s president of distribution, said
in a phone interview.
From this journal this morning:
"But she felt there must be more to this
than just the sensation of folding space
over on itself. Surely the Centaurs hadn't
spent ten years telling humanity how to
make a fancy amusementpark ride.
There had to be more—"
— Factoring Humanity , by Robert J. Sawyer,
Tom Doherty Associates, 2004 Orb edition,
page 168
"The sensation of folding space . . . ."
Or unfolding:
Click the above unfolded space for some background.
Comments Off on Amusement
Saturday, March 31, 2018
“The greatest obstacle to discovery
is not ignorance —
it is the illusion of knowledge.”
— Daniel J. Boorstin,
Librarian of Congress,
quoted here in 2006.
Related material —
Remarks on Rubik’s Cube from June 13, 2014 and . . .
See as well a different Gresham, author of Nightmare Alley ,
and Log24 posts on that book and the film of the same name .
Comments Off on Illusion
Monday, March 12, 2018
Remarks related to a recent film and a notsorecent film.
For some historical background, see Dirac and Geometry in this journal.
Also (as Thas mentions) after Saniga and Planat —
The SanigaPlanat paper was submitted on December 21, 2006.
Excerpts from this journal on that date —
"Open the pod bay doors, HAL."
Comments Off on “Quantum Tesseract Theorem?”
Sunday, March 4, 2018
1955 ("Blackboard Jungle") —
1976 —
2009 —
2016 —
Comments Off on The Square Inch Space: A Brief History
Saturday, February 17, 2018
Michael Atiyah on the late Ron Shaw —
Phrases by Atiyah related to the importance in mathematics
of the twoelement Galois field GF(2) —
 “The digital revolution based on the 2 symbols (0,1)”
 “The algebra of George Boole”
 “Binary codes”
 “Dirac’s spinors, with their up/down dichotomy”
These phrases are from the yearend review of Trinity College,
Cambridge, Trinity Annual Record 2017 .
I prefer other, purely geometric, reasons for the importance of GF(2) —
 The 2×2 square
 The 2x2x2 cube
 The 4×4 square
 The 4x4x4 cube
See Finite Geometry of the Square and Cube.
See also today’s earlier post God’s Dice and Atiyah on the theology of
(Boolean) algebra vs. (Galois) geometry:
Comments Off on The Binary Revolution
Thursday, January 25, 2018
"By an archetype I mean a systematic repertoire
of ideas by means of which a given thinker describes,
by analogical extension , some domain to which
those ideas do not immediately and literally apply."
— Max Black in Models and Metaphors
(Cornell, 1962, p. 241)
"Others … spoke of 'ultimate frames of reference' …."
— Ibid.
A "frame of reference" for the concept four quartets —
A less reputable analogical extension of the same
frame of reference —
Madeleine L'Engle in A Swiftly Tilting Planet :
"… deep in concentration, bent over the model
they were building of a tesseract:
the square squared, and squared again…."
See also the phrase Galois tesseract .
Comments Off on Beware of Analogical Extension
Saturday, September 23, 2017
"With respect to the story's content, the frame thus acts
both as an inclusion of the exterior and as an exclusion
of the interior: it is a perturbation of the outside at the
very core of the story's inside, and as such, it is a blurring
of the very difference between inside and outside."
— Shoshana Felman on a Henry James story, p. 123 in
"Turning the Screw of Interpretation,"
Yale French Studies No. 55/56 (1977), pp. 94207.
Published by Yale University Press.
See also the previous post and The Galois Tesseract.
Comments Off on The Turn of the Frame
Friday, September 15, 2017
Silas in "Equals" (2015) —
Ever since we were kids it's been drilled into us that …
Our purpose is to explore the universe, you know.
Outer space is where we'll find …
… the answers to why we're here and …
… and where we come from.
Related material —
See also Galois Space in this journal.
Comments Off on Space Art
Sunday, August 27, 2017
The “Black” of the title refers to the previous post.
For the “Well,” see Hexagram 48.
Related material —
The Galois Tesseract and, more generally, Binary Coordinate Systems.
Comments Off on Black Well
Monday, June 26, 2017
Analogies — “A : B :: C : D” may be read “A is to B as C is to D.”
GianCarlo Rota on Heidegger…
“… The universal as is given various names in Heidegger’s writings….
The discovery of the universal as is Heidegger’s contribution to philosophy….
The universal ‘as‘ is the surgence of sense in Man, the shepherd of Being.
The disclosure of the primordial as is the end of a search that began with Plato….
This search comes to its conclusion with Heidegger.”
— “Three Senses of ‘A is B’ in Heideggger,” Ch. 17 in Indiscrete Thoughts
See also Four Dots in this journal.
Some context: McLuhan + Analogy.
Comments Off on Four Dots
Saturday, June 3, 2017
Or: The Square
"What we do may be small, but it has
a certain character of permanence."
— G. H. Hardy
* See Expanding the Spielraum in this journal.
Comments Off on Expanding the Spielraum (Continued*)
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
Comments Off on Pursued by a Biplane
Saturday, May 20, 2017
From a review of the 2016 film "Arrival" —
"A seemingly offhand reference to Abbott and Costello
is our gateway. In a movie as generally humorless as Arrival,
the jokes mean something. Ironically, it is Donnelly, not Banks,
who initiates the joke, naming the verbally inexpressive
Heptapod aliens after the loquacious Classical Hollywood
comedians. The squidlike aliens communicate via those beautiful,
cryptic images. Those signs, when thoroughly comprehended,
open the perceiver to a nonlinear conception of time; this is
SapirWhorf taken to the ludicrous extreme."
— Jordan Brower in the Los Angeles Review of Books
Further on in the review —
"Banks doesn’t fully understand the alien language, but she
knows it well enough to get by. This realization emerges
most evidently when Banks enters the alien ship and, floating
alongside Costello, converses with it in their picturelanguage.
She asks where Abbott is, and it responds — as presented
in subtitling — that Abbott 'is death process.'
'Death process' — dying — is not idiomatic English, and what
we see, written for us, is not a perfect translation but a
rendering of Banks’s understanding. This, it seems to me, is a
crucial moment marking the hard limit of a human mind,
working within the confines of human language to understand
an ultimately intractable xenolinguistic system."
For what may seem like an intractable xenolinguistic system to
those whose experience of mathematics is limited to portrayals
by Hollywood, see the previous post —
van Lint and Wilson Meet the Galois Tesseract.
The death process of van Lint occurred on Sept. 28, 2004.
See this journal on that date.
Comments Off on The Ludicrous Extreme
Tuesday, May 2, 2017
Comments Off on Image Albums
Thursday, April 20, 2017
See also “Romancing the Omega” —
Related mathematics — Guitart in this journal —
See also Weyl + Palermo in this journal —
Comments Off on Stone Logic
Sunday, April 16, 2017
This post’s title is from the tags of the previous post —
The title’s “shift” is in the combined concepts of …
Space and Number
From Finite Jest (May 27, 2012):
The books pictured above are From Discrete to Continuous ,
by Katherine Neal, and Geometrical Landscapes , by Amir Alexander.
For some details of the shift, see a Log24 search for Boole vs. Galois.
From a post found in that search —
“Benedict Cumberbatch Says
a Journey From Fact to Faith
Is at the Heart of Doctor Strange“
— io9 , July 29, 2016
” ‘This man comes from a binary universe
where it’s all about logic,’ the actor told us
at San Diego ComicCon . . . .
‘And there’s a lot of humor in the collision
between Easter [ sic ] mysticism and
Western scientific, sort of logical binary.’ “
[Typo now corrected, except in a comment.]
Comments Off on Art Space Paradigm Shift
Wednesday, October 5, 2016
From a Google image search yesterday —
Sources (left to right, top to bottom) —
Math Guy (July 16, 2014)
The Galois Tesseract (Sept. 1, 2011)
The Full Force of Roman Law (April 21, 2014)
A Great Moonshine (Sept. 25, 2015)
A Point of Identity (August 8, 2016)
Pascal via Curtis (April 6, 2013)
Correspondences (August 6, 2011)
Symmetric Generation (Sept. 21, 2011)
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Tuesday, August 16, 2016
The images in the previous post do not lend themselves
to any straightforward narrative. Two portions of the
large image search are, however, suggestive —
Boulez and Boole and…
Cross and Boolean lattice.
The improvised cross in the second pair of images
is perhaps being wielded to counteract the
Boole of the first pair of images. See the heading
of the webpage that is the source of the lattice
diagram toward which the cross is directed —
Update of 10 am on August 16, 2016 —
See also Atiyah on the theology of
(Boolean) algebra vs. (Galois) geometry:
Comments Off on Midnight Narrative
Wednesday, June 29, 2016
For the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul —
In memory of Alvin Toffler and Simon Ramo,
a review of figures from the midnight that began
the date of their deaths, June 27, 2016 —
The 3×3×3 Galois Cube
See also Rubik in this journal.
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Saturday, June 18, 2016
In memory of New Yorker artist Anatol Kovarsky,
who reportedly died at 97 on June 1.
Note the Santa, a figure associated with Macy's at Herald Square.
See also posts tagged Herald Square, as well as the following
figure from this journal on the day preceding Kovarsky's death.
A note related both to Galois space and to
the "Herald Square"tagged posts —
"There is such a thing as a length16 sequence."
— Saying adapted from a youngadult novel.
Comments Off on Midnight in Herald Square
Sunday, May 8, 2016
Earlier posts have dealt with Solomon Marcus and Solomon Golomb,
both of whom died this year — Marcus on Saint Patrick’s Day, and
Golomb on Orthodox Easter Sunday. This suggests a review of
Solomon LeWitt, who died on Catholic Easter Sunday, 2007.
A quote from LeWitt indicates the depth of the word “conceptual”
in his approach to “conceptual art.”
From Sol LeWitt: A Retrospective , edited by Gary Garrels, Yale University Press, 2000, p. 376:
THE SQUARE AND THE CUBE
by Sol LeWitt
“The best that can be said for either the square or the cube is that they are relatively uninteresting in themselves. Being basic representations of two and threedimensional form, they lack the expressive force of other more interesting forms and shapes. They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer; it is immediately evident that a square is a square and a cube a cube. Released from the necessity of being significant in themselves, they can be better used as grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.”
“Reprinted from Lucy R. Lippard et al ., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55, No. 4 (JulyAugust 1967): 54. (LeWitt’s contribution was originally untitled.)” 
See also the Cullinane models of some small Galois spaces —
Comments Off on The Three Solomons
Friday, May 6, 2016
Thursday, April 14, 2016
On this date in 2005, mathematician Saunders Mac Lane died at 95.
Related material —
Max Planck quotations:
Mac Lane on Boolean algebra:
Mac Lane’s summary chart (note the absence of Galois geometry ):
I disagree with Mac Lane’s assertion that “the finite models of
Boolean algebra are dull.” See Boole vs. Galois in this journal.
Comments Off on One Funeral at a Time
Wednesday, January 13, 2016
(Continued from previous episodes)
Boole and Galois also figure in the mathematics of space —
i.e. , geometry. See Boole + Galois in this journal.
Related material, according to Jung’s notion of synchronicity —
Comments Off on Geometry for Jews
Monday, January 11, 2016
It is an odd fact that the close relationship between some
small Galois spaces and small Boolean spaces has gone
unremarked by mathematicians.
A Google search today for “Galois spaces” + “Boolean spaces”
yielded, apart from merely terminological sources, only some
introductory material I have put on the Web myself.
Some more sophisticated searches, however led to a few
documents from the years 1971 – 1981 …
“Harmonic Analysis of Switching Functions” ,
by Robert J. Lechner, Ch. 5 in A. Mukhopadhyay, editor,
Recent Developments in Switching Theory , Academic Press, 1971.
“Galois Switching Functions and Their Applications,”
by B. Benjauthrit and I. S. Reed,
JPL Deep Space Network Progress Report 4227 , 1975
D.K. Pradhan, “A Theory of Galois Switching Functions,”
IEEE Trans. Computers , vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 239249, Mar. 1978
“Switching functions constructed by Galois extension fields,”
by Iwaro Takahashi, Information and Control ,
Volume 48, Issue 2, pp. 95–108, February 1981
An illustration from the Lechner paper above —
“There is such a thing as harmonic analysis of switching functions.”
— Saying adapted from a youngadult novel
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Monday, December 28, 2015
Combining two headlines from this morning’s
New York Times and Washington Post , we have…
Deceptively Simple Geometries
on a Bold Scale
Voilà —
Click image for details.
More generally, see
Boole vs. Galois.
Comments Off on ART WARS Continues
Friday, December 25, 2015
Related material:
The previous post (Bright Symbol) and
a post from Wednesday,
December 23, 2015, that links to posts
on Boolean algebra vs. Galois geometry.
“An analogy between mathematics and religion is apposite.”
— Harvard Magazine review by Avner Ash of
Mathematics without Apologies
(Princeton University Press, January 18, 2015)
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Wednesday, December 23, 2015
Bleecker Street logo —
Click image for some background.
Related remarks on mathematics:
Boole vs. Galois
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Sunday, December 13, 2015
“The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang.”
— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois
Comments Off on The Monster as Big as the Ritz
Monday, November 2, 2015
This is a sequel to the previous post and to the Oct. 24 post
Two Views of Finite Space. From the latter —
” ‘All you need to do is give me your soul:
give up geometry and you will have this
marvellous machine.’ (Nowadays you
can think of it as a computer!) “
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"The office of color in the color line
is a very plain and subordinate one.
It simply advertises the objects of
oppression, insult, and persecution.
It is not the maddening liquor, but
the black letters on the sign
telling the world where it may be had."
— Frederick Douglass, "The Color Line,"
The North American Review , Vol. 132,
No. 295, June 1881, page 575
Or gold letters.
From a search for Seagram in this journal —
"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."
— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois
Comments Off on Colorful Story
Saturday, October 31, 2015
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —
Paraconsistent Logic
“First published Tue Sep 24, 1996;
substantive revision Fri Apr 5, 2013”
This journal on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —
The object most closely resembling a “philosophers’ stone”
that I know of is the eightfold cube .
For some related philosophical remarks that may appeal
to a general Internet audience, see (for instance) a website
by I Ching enthusiast Andreas Schöter that displays a labeled
eightfold cube in the form of a lattice diagram —
Related material by Schöter —
A 20page PDF, “Boolean Algebra and the Yi Jing.”
(First published in The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies ,
Vol 2, No 7, Summer 1998, pp. 19–34.)
I differ with Schöter’s emphasis on Boolean algebra.
The appropriate mathematics for I Ching studies is,
I maintain, not Boolean algebra but rather Galois geometry.
See last Saturday’s post Two Views of Finite Space.
Unfortunately, that post is, unlike Schöter’s work, not
suitable for a general Internet audience.
Comments Off on Raiders of the Lost Crucible
Saturday, October 24, 2015
The following slides are from lectures on “Advanced Boolean Algebra” —
The small Boolean spaces above correspond exactly to some small
Galois spaces. These two names indicate approaches to the spaces
via Boolean algebra and via Galois geometry .
A reading from Atiyah that seems relevant to this sort of algebra
and this sort of geometry —
” ‘All you need to do is give me your soul: give up geometry
and you will have this marvellous machine.’ (Nowadays you
can think of it as a computer!) “
Related material — The article “Diamond Theory” in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2 No. 1, February 1977. That
article, despite the word “computer” in the journal’s title, was
much less about Boolean algebra than about Galois geometry .
For later remarks on diamond theory, see finitegeometry.org/sc.
Comments Off on Two Views of Finite Space
Wednesday, October 21, 2015
"Perhaps an insane conceit …." Perhaps.
Related remarks on algebra and space —
"The Quality Without a Name" (Log24, August 26, 2015).
Comments Off on Algebra and Space
Sunday, September 6, 2015
Sarah Larson in the online New Yorker on Sept. 3, 2015,
discussed Google’s new parent company, “Alphabet”—
“… Alphabet takes our most elementally wonderful
generaluse word—the name of the components of
language itself*—and reassigns it, like the words
tweet, twitter, vine, facebook, friend, and so on,
into a branded realm.”
Emma Watson in “The Bling Ring”
This journal, also on September 3 —
* Actually, Sarah, that would be “phonemes.”
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Friday, September 4, 2015
Galois via Boole
(Courtesy of Intel)
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Thursday, September 3, 2015
For the title, see posts from August 2007 tagged Gyges.
Related theological remarks:
Boolean spaces (old) vs. Galois spaces (new) in
“The Quality Without a Name”
(a post from August 26, 2015) and the…
Related literature: A search for Borogoves in this journal will yield
remarks on the 1943 tale underlying the above film.
Comments Off on Rings of August
Wednesday, August 26, 2015
The title phrase, paraphrased without quotes in
the previous post, is from Christopher Alexander’s book
The Timeless Way of Building (Oxford University Press, 1979).
A quote from the publisher:
“Now, at last, there is a coherent theory
which describes in modern terms
an architecture as ancient as
human society itself.”
Three paragraphs from the book (pp. xiiixiv):
19. Within this process, every individual act
of building is a process in which space gets
differentiated. It is not a process of addition,
in which preformed parts are combined to
create a whole, but a process of unfolding,
like the evolution of an embryo, in which
the whole precedes the parts, and actualy
gives birth to then, by splitting.
20. The process of unfolding goes step by step,
one pattern at a time. Each step brings just one
pattern to life; and the intensity of the result
depends on the intensity of each one of these
individual steps.
21. From a sequence of these individual patterns,
whole buildings with the character of nature
will form themselves within your thoughts,
as easily as sentences.
Compare to, and contrast with, these illustrations of “Boolean space”:
(See also similar illustrations from Berkeley and Purdue.)
Detail of the above image —
Note the “unfolding,” as Christopher Alexander would have it.
These “Boolean” spaces of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 points
are also Galois spaces. See the diamond theorem —
Comments Off on “The Quality Without a Name”
Friday, August 14, 2015
(A review)
Galois space:
Counting symmetries of Galois space:
The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine Galois space —
symmetries of the underlying projective Galois space:
Comments Off on Discrete Space
Tuesday, June 9, 2015
For geeks* —
" Domain, Domain on the Range , "
where Domain = the Galois tesseract and
Range = the fourelement Galois field.
This post was suggested by the previous post,
by a Log24 search for Knight + Move, and by
the phrase "discouraging words" found in that search.
* A term from the 1947 film "Nightmare Alley."
Comments Off on Colorful Song
Thursday, March 26, 2015
The incidences of points and planes in the
Möbius 8_{4 } configuration (8 points and 8 planes,
with 4 points on each plane and 4 planes on each point),
were described by Coxeter in a 1950 paper.*
A table from Monday's post summarizes Coxeter's
remarks, which described the incidences in
spatial terms, with the points and planes as the vertices
and faceplanes of two mutually inscribed tetrahedra —
Monday's post, "Gallucci's Möbius Configuration,"
may not be completely intelligible unless one notices
that Coxeter has drawn some of the intersections in his
Fig. 24, a schematic representation of the pointplane
incidences, as dotless, and some as hollow dots. The figure,
"Gallucci's version of Möbius's 8_{4}," is shown below.
The hollow dots, representing the 8 points (as opposed
to the 8 planes ) of the configuration, are highlighted in blue.
Here a plane (represented by a dotless intersection) contains
the four points that are represented in the square array as lying
in the same row or same column as the plane.
The above Möbius incidences appear also much earlier in
Coxeter's paper, in figures 6 and 5, where they are shown
as describing the structure of a hypercube.
In figures 6 and 5, the dotless intersections representing
planes have been replaced by solid dots. The hollow dots
have again been highlighted in blue.
Figures 6 and 5 demonstrate the fact that adjacency in the set of
16 vertices of a hypercube is isomorphic to adjacency in the set
of 16 subsquares of a square 4×4 array, provided that opposite
sides of the array are identified, as in Fig. 6. The digits in
Coxeter's labels above may be viewed as naming the positions
of the 1's in (0,1) vectors (x_{4}, x_{3}, x_{2}, x_{1}) over the twoelement
Galois field.^{†} In that context, the 4×4 array may be called, instead
of a Möbius hypercube , a Galois tesseract .
* "SelfDual Configurations and Regular Graphs,"
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society,
Vol. 56 (1950), pp. 413455
^{†} The subscripts' usual 1234 order is reversed as a reminder
that such a vector may be viewed as labeling a binary number
from 0 through 15, or alternately as labeling a polynomial in
the 16element Galois field GF(2^{4}). See the Log24 post
Vector Addition in a Finite Field (Jan. 5, 2013).
Comments Off on The Möbius Hypercube
Monday, February 9, 2015
For Jews of Hungarian background
who do not worship Paul Erdős and
Rubik’s Cube:
The Great Escape.
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Sunday, February 8, 2015
For Autism Sunday —
Mathematician John von Neumann
reportedly died on this date.
“He belonged to that socalled
Hungarian phenomenon….”
— A webpage titled
“Von Neumann, Jewish Catholic”
Illustrations of another Hungarian phenomenon:
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Monday, January 5, 2015
Wednesday, March 13, 2013
From a review in the April 2013 issue of
Notices of the American Mathematical Society—
"The author clearly is passionate about mathematics
as an art, as a creative process. In reading this book,
one can easily get the impression that mathematics
instruction should be more like an unfettered journey
into a jungle where an individual can make his or her
own way through that terrain."
From the book under review—
"Every morning you take your machete into the jungle
and explore and make observations, and every day
you fall more in love with the richness and splendor
of the place."
— Lockhart, Paul (20090401).
A Mathematician's Lament:
How School Cheats Us Out of Our Most Fascinating
and Imaginative Art Form (p. 92).
Bellevue Literary Press. Kindle Edition.
Related material: Blackboard Jungle in this journal.
See also Galois Space and Solomon's Mines.

"I pondered deeply, then, over the
adventures of the jungle. And after
some work with a colored pencil
I succeeded in making my first drawing.
My Drawing Number One.
It looked something like this:
I showed my masterpiece to the
grownups, and asked them whether
the drawing frightened them.
But they answered: 'Why should
anyone be frightened by a hat?'"
— The Little Prince
* For the title, see Plato Thanks the Academy (Jan. 3).
Comments Off on Gitterkrieg*
Monday, December 29, 2014
Recent posts tagged Sagan Dodecahedron
mention an association between that Platonic
solid and the 5×5 grid. That grid, when extended
by the six points on a "line at infinity," yields
the 31 points of the finite projective plane of
order five.
For details of how the dodecahedron serves as
a model of this projective plane (PG(2,5)), see
Polster's A Geometrical Picture Book , p. 120:
For associations of the grid with magic rather than
with Plato, see a search for 5×5 in this journal.
Comments Off on Dodecahedron Model of PG(2,5)
Thursday, December 18, 2014
(Five by Five continued)
As the 3×3 grid underlies the order3 finite projective plane,
whose 13 points may be modeled by
the 13 symmetry axes of the cube,
so the 5×5 grid underlies the order5 finite projective plane,
whose 31 points may be modeled by
the 31 symmetry axes of the dodecahedron.
See posts tagged GaloisPlane Models.
Comments Off on Platonic Analogy
Wednesday, December 3, 2014
Oslo artist Josefine Lyche has a new Instagram post,
this time on pyramids (the monumental kind).
My response —
Wikipedia's definition of a tetrahedron as a
"trianglebased pyramid" …
… and remarks from a Log24 post of August 14, 2013 :
See also some of Burkard Polster's trianglebased pyramids
and a 1983 trianglebased pyramid in a paper that Polster cites —
(Click image below to enlarge.)
Some other illustrations that are particularly relevant
for Lyche, an enthusiast of magic :
From On Art and Magic (May 5, 2011) —
Mathematics
The Fano plane block design

Magic
The Deathly Hallows symbol—
Two blocks short of a design.


(Updated at about 7 PM ET on Dec. 3.)
Comments Off on Pyramid Dance
Sunday, November 30, 2014
The Regular Tetrahedron
The seven symmetry axes of the regular tetrahedron
are of two types: vertextoface and edgetoedge.
Take these axes as the "points" of a Fano plane.
Each of the tetrahedron's six reflection planes contains
two vertextoface axes and one edgetoedge axis.
Take these six planes as six of the "lines" of a Fano
plane. Then the seventh line is the set of three
edgetoedge axes.
(The Fano tetrahedron is not original with me.
See Polster's 1998 A Geometrical Picture Book , pp. 1617.)
The Cube
There are three reflection planes parallel to faces
of the cube. Take the seven nonempty subsets of
the set of these three planes as the "points" of a
Fano plane. Define the Fano "lines" as those triples
of these seven subsets in which each member of
the triple is the symmetricdifference sum of the
other two members.
(This is the eightfold cube discussed at finitegeometry.org.)
Comments Off on Two Physical Models of the Fano Plane
Wednesday, November 26, 2014
Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —
It turns out that the following construction appears on
pages 1617 of A Geometrical Picture Book , by
Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998).
"Experienced mathematicians know that often the hardest
part of researching a problem is understanding precisely
what that problem says. They often follow Polya's wise
advice: 'If you can't solve a problem, then there is an
easier problem you can't solve: find it.'"
—John H. Conway, foreword to the 2004 Princeton
Science Library edition of How to Solve It , by G. Polya
For a similar but more difficult problem involving the
31point projective plane, see yesterday's post
"EuclideanGalois Interplay."
The above new [see update above] Fanoplane model was
suggested by some 1998 remarks of the late Stephen Eberhart.
See this morning's followup to "EuclideanGalois Interplay"
quoting Eberhart on the topic of how some of the smallest finite
projective planes relate to the symmetries of the five Platonic solids.
Update of Nov. 27, 2014: The seventh "line" of the tetrahedral
Fano model was redefined for greater symmetry.
Comments Off on A Tetrahedral FanoPlane Model
Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —
For further information on the geometry in
the remarks by Eberhart below, see
pp. 1617 of A Geometrical Picture Book ,
by Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998). Polster
cites a different article by Lemay.
A search for background to the exercise in the previous post
yields a passage from the late Stephen Eberhart:
The first three primes p = 2, 3, and 5 therefore yield finite projective planes with 7, 13, and 31 points and lines, respectively. But these are just the numbers of symmetry axes of the five regular solids, as described in Plato's Timaeus : The tetrahedron has 4 pairs of face planes and comer points + 3 pairs of opposite edges, totalling 7 axes; the cube has 3 pairs of faces + 6 pairs of edges + 4 pairs of comers, totalling 13 axes (the octahedron simply interchanges the roles of faces and comers); and the pentagon dodecahedron has 6 pairs of faces + 15 pairs of edges + 10 pairs of comers, totalling 31 axes (the icosahedron again interchanging roles of faces and comers). This is such a suggestive result, one would expect to find it dealt with in most texts on related subjects; instead, while "well known to those who well know such things" (as Richard Guy likes to quip), it is scarcely to be found in the formal literature [9]. The reason for the common numbers, it turns out, is that the groups of symmetry motions of the regular solids are subgroups of the groups of collineations of the respective finite planes, a face axis being different from an edge axis of a regular solid but all points of a projective plane being alike, so the latter has more symmetries than the former.
[9] I am aware only of a series of inhouse publications by Fernand Lemay of the Laboratoire de Didactique, Faculté des Sciences de I 'Éducation, Univ. Laval, Québec, in particular those collectively titled Genèse de la géométrie IX.
— Stephen Eberhart, Dept. of Mathematics,
California State University, Northridge,
"Pythagorean and Platonic Bridges between
Geometry and Algebra," in BRIDGES: Mathematical
Connections in Art, Music, and Science , 1998,
archive.bridgesmathart.org/1998/bridges1998121.pdf

Eberhart died of bone cancer in 2003. A memorial by his
high school class includes an Aug. 7, 2003, transcribed
letter from Eberhart to a classmate that ends…
… I earned MA’s in math (UW, Seattle) and history (UM, Missoula) where a math/history PhD program had been announced but canceled. So 1984 to 2002 I taught math (esp. nonEuclidean geometry) at C.S.U. Northridge. It’s been a rich life. I’m grateful.
Steve

See also another informative BRIDGES paper by Eberhart
on mathematics and the seven traditional liberal arts.
Comments Off on Class Act
Friday, November 14, 2014
“What happens when you mix the brilliant wit of Noel Coward
with the intricate plotting of Agatha Christie? Set during a
weekend in an English country manor in 1932, Death by Design
is a delightful and mysterious ‘mashup’ of two of the greatest
English writers of all time. Edward Bennett, a playwright, and
his wife Sorel Bennett, an actress, flee London and head to
Cookham after a disastrous opening night. But various guests
arrive unexpectedly….”
— Samuel French (theatrical publisher) on a play that
opened in Houston on September 9, 2011.
Related material:
Comments Off on Another Opening, Another Show
Saturday, October 18, 2014
Barron’s Educational Series (click to enlarge):
The Tablet of Ahkmenrah:
“With the Tablet of Ahkmenrah and the Cube of Rubik,
my power will know no bounds!”
— Kahmunrah in a novelization of Night at the Museum:
Battle of the Smithsonian , Barron’s Educational Series
Another educational series (this journal):
Art theorist Rosalind Krauss and The Ninefold Square
Comments Off on Educational Series
Monday, September 22, 2014
Review of an image from a post of May 6, 2009:
Comments Off on Space
Sunday, September 14, 2014
Structured gray matter:
Graphic symmetries of Galois space:
The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine Galois space —
symmetries of the underlying projective Galois space:
Comments Off on Sensibility
Sunday, August 31, 2014
The Folding
Cynthia Zarin in The New Yorker , issue dated April 12, 2004—
“Time, for L’Engle, is accordionpleated. She elaborated,
‘When you bring a sheet off the line, you can’t handle it
until it’s folded, and in a sense, I think, the universe can’t
exist until it’s folded — or it’s a story without a book.’”
The geometry of the 4×4 square array is that of the
3dimensional projective Galois space PG(3,2).
This space occurs, notably, in the Miracle Octad Generator (MOG)
of R. T. Curtis (submitted to Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. on
15 June 1974). Curtis did not, however, describe its geometric
properties. For these, see the Cullinane diamond theorem.
Some history:
Curtis seems to have obtained the 4×4 space by permuting,
then “folding” 1×8 binary sequences into 4×2 binary arrays.
The original 1×8 sequences came from the method of Turyn
(1967) described by van Lint in his book Coding Theory
(Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics, No. 201 , first edition
published in 1971). Two 4×2 arrays form each 4×4 square array
within the MOG. This construction did not suggest any discussion
of the geometric properties of the square arrays.
[Rewritten for clarity on Sept. 3, 2014.]
Comments Off on Sunday School
Friday, June 13, 2014
“The wind of change is blowing throughout the continent.
Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness
is a political fact.”— Prime Minister Harold Macmillan,
South Africa, 1960
“Lord knows when the cold wind blows
it’ll turn your head around.” — James Taylor
From a Log24 post of August 27, 2011:
For related remarks on “national consciousness,” see Frantz Fanon.
Comments Off on It’s 10 PM
Monday, April 28, 2014
Suggested by a Saturday death in Jersey City:
Somewhere, over the gray space…
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(Orlin Wagner/Associated Press) – A vehicle tops a hill along
U.S. Route 56 as a severe thunderstorm moves through the area
near Baldwin City, Kansas, on Sunday, April 27, 2014.
See a related news story.
Comments Off on Gray Space, by Wagner
Sunday, April 27, 2014
Galois and Abel vs. Rubik
(Continued)
“Abel was done to death by poverty, Galois by stupidity.
In all the history of science there is no completer example
of the triumph of crass stupidity….”
— Eric Temple Bell, Men of Mathematics
Gray Space (Continued)
… For The Church of Plan 9.
Comments Off on Sunday School
Saturday, April 26, 2014
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Friday, April 25, 2014
Saturday, May 11, 2013
Promotional description of a new book:
“Like Gödel, Escher, Bach before it, Surfaces and Essences will profoundly enrich our understanding of our own minds. By plunging the reader into an extraordinary variety of colorful situations involving language, thought, and memory, by revealing bit by bit the constantly churning cognitive mechanisms normally completely hidden from view, and by discovering in them one central, invariant core— the incessant, unconscious quest for strong analogical links to past experiences— this book puts forth a radical and deeply surprising new vision of the act of thinking.”
“Like Gödel, Escher, Bach before it….”
Or like Metamagical Themas .
Rubik core:
Swarthmore Cube Project, 2008
Non Rubik cores:
Of the odd nxnxn cube:

Of the even nxnxn cube:

Related material: The Eightfold Cube and…
“A core component in the construction
is a 3dimensional vector space V over F_{2 }.”
— Page 29 of “A twist in the M_{24} moonshine story,”
by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland.
(Submitted to the arXiv on 13 Mar 2013.)
Comments Off on Core
Tuesday, February 26, 2013
"I’ve had the privilege recently of being a Harvard University
professor, and there I learned one of the greatest of Harvard
jokes. A group of rabbis are on the road to Golgotha and
Jesus is coming by under the cross. The young rabbi bursts
into tears and says, 'Oh, God, the pity of it!' The old rabbi says,
'What is the pity of it?' The young rabbi says, 'Master, Master,
what a teacher he was.'
'Didn’t publish!'
That cold tenure joke at Harvard contains a deep truth.
Indeed, Jesus and Socrates did not publish."
— George Steiner, 2002 talk at York University
Related material—
See also Steiner on Galois.
Les Miserables at the Academy Awards
Comments Off on Publication
Tuesday, February 5, 2013
The previous post discussed some fundamentals of logic.
The name “Boole” in that post naturally suggests the
concept of Boolean algebra . This is not the algebra
needed for Galois geometry . See below.
Some, like Dan Brown, prefer to interpret symbols using
religion, not logic. They may consult Diamond Mandorla,
as well as Blade and Chalice, in this journal.
See also yesterday’s Universe of Discourse.
Comments Off on Arsenal
Monday, August 13, 2012
(An episode of Mathematics and Narrative )
A report on the August 9th opening of Sondheim's Into the Woods—
Amy Adams… explained why she decided to take on the role of the Baker’s Wife.
“It’s the ‘Be careful what you wish’ part,” she said. “Since having a child, I’m really aware that we’re all under a social responsibility to understand the consequences of our actions.” —Amanda Gordon at businessweek.com
Related material—
Amy Adams in Sunshine Cleaning "quickly learns the rules and ropes of her unlikely new market. (For instance, there are products out there specially formulated for cleaning up a 'decomp.')" —David Savage at Cinema Retro
Compare and contrast…
1. The following item from Walpurgisnacht 2012—
2. The six partitions of a tesseract's 16 vertices
into four parallel faces in Diamond Theory in 1937—
Comments Off on Raiders of the Lost Tesseract
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Tuesday, May 29, 2012
(Continued from May 29, 2002)
May 29, 1832—
Évariste Galois, Lettre de Galois à M. Auguste Chevalier—
Après cela, il se trouvera, j'espère, des gens qui trouveront leur profit à déchiffrer tout ce gâchis.
(Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.)
Martin Gardner on the above letter—
"Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers."
– The Last Recreations , by Martin Gardner, published by Springer in 2007, page 156.
Commentary from Dec. 2011 on Gardner's word "published" —
(Click to enlarge.)
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Thursday, April 12, 2012
"Is Space Digital?"
— Cover story, Scientific American magazine, February 2012
"The idea that space may be digital
is a fringe idea of a fringe idea
of a speculative subfield of a subfield."
— Physicist Sabine Hossenfelder
at her weblog on Feb. 5, 2012
"A quantization of space/time
is a holy grail for many theorists…."
— Peter Woit in a comment at his physics weblog today
See also
* See yesterday's Steiner's Systems.
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Saturday, January 14, 2012
(Continued)
The following is adapted from a 2011 post—
* The title, that of a Fritz Leiber story, is suggested by
the above picture of the symmetry axes of the square.
Click "Continued" above for further details. See also
last Wednesday's Cuber.
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Sunday, October 30, 2011
Part I: Timothy Gowers on equivalence relations
Part II: Martin Gardner on normal subgroups
Part III: Evariste Galois on normal subgroups
"In all the history of science there is no completer example
of the triumph of crass stupidity over untamable genius…."
— Eric Temple Bell, Men of Mathematics
See also an interesting definition and Weyl on Galois.
Update of 6:29 PM EDT Oct. 30, 2011—
For further details, see Herstein's phrase
"a tribute to the genius of Galois."
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Sunday, August 28, 2011
Yesterday’s midday post, borrowing a phrase from the theology of Marvel Comics,
offered Rubik’s mechanical contrivance as a rather absurd “Cosmic Cube.”
A simpler candidate for the “Cube” part of that phrase:
The Eightfold Cube
As noted elsewhere, a simple reflection group* of order 168 acts naturally on this structure.
“Because of their truly fundamental role in mathematics,
even the simplest diagrams concerning finite reflection groups
(or finite mirror systems, or root systems—
the languages are equivalent) have interpretations
of cosmological proportions.”
— Alexandre V. Borovik in “Coxeter Theory: The Cognitive Aspects“
Borovik has a such a diagram—
The planes in Borovik’s figure are those separating the parts of the eightfold cube above.
In Coxeter theory, these are Euclidean hyperplanes. In the eightfold cube, they represent three of seven projective points that are permuted by the above group of order 168.
In light of Borovik’s remarks, the eightfold cube might serve to illustrate the “Cosmic” part of the Marvel Comics phrase.
For some related theological remarks, see Cube Trinity in this journal.
Happy St. Augustine’s Day.
* I.e., one generated by reflections : group actions that fix a hyperplane pointwise. In the eightfold cube, viewed as a vector space of 3 dimensions over the 2element Galois field, these hyperplanes are certain sets of four subcubes.
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Saturday, August 27, 2011
Prequel — (Click to enlarge)
Background —
See also Rubik in this journal.
* For the title, see Groups Acting.
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Thursday, May 26, 2011
But leave the wise to wrangle, and with me
the quarrel of the universe let be;
and, in some corner of the hubbub couched,
make game of that which makes as much of thee.
—John McKay at sci.math
Related material: Harvard Treasure, Favicon, and Crimson Tide.
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Thursday, May 5, 2011
Two Blocks Short of a Design:
A sequel to this morning’s post on Douglas Hofstadter
Related material — See Lyche’s “Theme and Variations” in this journal
and Hofstadter’s “Variations on a Theme as the Essence of Imagination”
— Scientific American October 1982
A quotation from a 1985 book by Hofstadter—
“… we need to entice people with the beauties of clarity, simplicity, precision,
elegance, balance, symmetry, and so on.
Those artistic qualities… are the things that I have tried to explore and even
to celebrate in Metamagical Themas . (It is not for nothing that the word
‘magic’ appears inside the title!)”
The artistic qualities Hofstadter lists are best sought in mathematics, not in magic.
An example from Wikipedia —
Mathematics
The Fano plane block design

Magic
The Deathly Hallows symbol—
Two blocks short of a design.

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From this journal on July 23, 2007—
It is not enough to cover the rock with leaves.
We must be cured of it by a cure of the ground
Or a cure of ourselves, that is equal to a cure
Of the ground, a cure beyond forgetfulness.
And yet the leaves, if they broke into bud,
If they broke into bloom, if they bore fruit,
And if we ate the incipient colorings
Of their fresh culls might be a cure of the ground.
– Wallace Stevens, “The Rock” 
This quotation from Stevens (Harvard class of 1901) was posted here on when Daniel Radcliffe (i.e., Harry Potter) turned 18 in July 2007.
Other material from that post suggests it is time for a review of magic at Harvard.
On September 9, 2007, President Faust of Harvard
“encouraged the incoming class to explore Harvard’s many opportunities.
‘Think of it as a treasure room of hidden objects Harry discovers at Hogwarts,’ Faust said.”
That class is now about to graduate.
It is not clear what “hidden objects” it will take from four years in the Harvard treasure room.
Perhaps the following from a book published in 1985 will help…
The March 8, 2011, Harvard Crimson illustrates a central topic of Metamagical Themas , the Rubik’s Cube—
Hofstadter in 1985 offered a similar picture—
Hofstadter asks in his Metamagical introduction, “How can both Rubik’s Cube and nuclear Armageddon be discussed at equal length in one book by one author?”
For a different approach to such a discussion, see Paradigms Lost, a post made here a few hours before the March 11, 2011, Japanese earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster—
Whether Paradigms Lost is beyond forgetfulness is open to question.
Perhaps a later post, in the lighthearted spirit of Faust, will help. See April 20th’s “Ready When You Are, C.B.“
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Thursday, March 10, 2011
(Continued from February 19)
The cover of the April 1, 1970 second edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , by Thomas S. Kuhn—
This journal on January 19, 2011—
If Galois geometry is thought of as a paradigm shift from Euclidean geometry,
both images above— the Kuhn cover and the ninepoint affine plane—
may be viewed, taken together, as illustrating the shift. The nine subcubes
of the Euclidean 3x3x3 cube on the Kuhn cover do not form an affine plane
in the coordinate system of the Galois cube in the second image, but they
at least suggest such a plane. Similarly, transformations of a
nonmathematical object, the 1974 Rubik cube, are not Galois transformations,
but they at least suggest such transformations.
See also today's online Harvard Crimson illustration of problems of translation—
not unrelated to the problems of commensurability discussed by Kuhn.
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Wednesday, October 20, 2010
"Why the Celebration?"
"Martin Gardner passed away on May 22, 2010."
Imaginary movie poster from stoneship.org
Context— The Gardner Tribute.
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Monday, September 27, 2010
… In the Age of Citation
1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM
Social network analysis is focused on the patterning of the social
relationships that link social actors. Typically, network data take the
form of a squareactor by actorbinary adjacency matrix, where
each row and each column in the matrix represents a social actor. A
cell entry is 1 if and only if a pair of actors is linked by some social
relationship of interest (Freeman 1989).
— "Using Galois Lattices to Represent Network Data,"
by Linton C. Freeman and Douglas R. White,
Sociological Methodology, Vol. 23, pp. 127–146 (1993)
From this paper's CiteSeer page—
Citations
Visual Image of the Problem—
From a Google search today:
Related material—
"It is better to light one candle…"
"… the early favorite for best picture at the Oscars" — Roger Moore
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Tuesday, July 6, 2010
or: Combinatorics (Rota) as Philosophy (Heidegger) as Geometry (Me)
“Dasein’s full existential structure is constituted by
the ‘asstructure’ or ‘welljoined structure’ of the riftdesign*…”
— Gary Williams, post of January 22, 2010
Background—
GianCarlo Rota on Heidegger…
“… The universal as is given various names in Heidegger’s writings….
The discovery of the universal as is Heidegger’s contribution to philosophy….
The universal ‘as‘ is the surgence of sense in Man, the shepherd of Being.
The disclosure of the primordial as is the end of a search that began with Plato….
This search comes to its conclusion with Heidegger.”
— “Three Senses of ‘A is B’ in Heideggger,” Ch. 17 in Indiscrete Thoughts
… and projective points as separating rifts—
Click image for details.
* riftdesign— Definition by Deborah Levitt—
“Rift. The stroke or rending by which a world worlds, opening both the ‘old’ world and the selfconcealing earth to the possibility of a new world. As well as being this stroke, the rift is the site— the furrow or crack— created by the stroke. As the ‘rift design‘ it is the particular characteristics or traits of this furrow.”
— “Heidegger and the Theater of Truth,” in Tympanum: A Journal of Comparative Literary Studies, Vol. 1, 1998
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“Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs
be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand;
instead of a million count half a dozen,
and keep your accounts on your thumbnail.”
— Henry David Thoreau, Walden
This quotation is the epigraph to Section 1.1 of
Alexandre V. Borovik’s Mathematics Under the Microscope:
Notes on Cognitive Aspects of Mathematical Practice
(American Mathematical Society, Jan. 15, 2010, 317 pages). 
From Peter J. Cameron’s review notes for
his new course in group theory—
From Log24 on June 24—
Geometry Simplified
(an affine space with subsquares as points
and sets of subsquares as hyperplanes)
(a projective space with, as points, sets
of line segments that separate subsquares)
Exercise—
Show that the above geometry is a model
for the algebra discussed by Cameron.
Comments Off on Window, continued
Monday, July 5, 2010
“Examples are the stainedglass
windows of knowledge.” — Nabokov
Related material:
Thomas Wolfe and the
Kernel of Eternity
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Thursday, June 24, 2010
Geometry Simplified
(a projective space)
The above finite projective space
is the simplest nontrivial example
of a Galois geometry (i.e., a finite
geometry with coordinates in a
finite (that is, Galois) field.)
The vertical (Euclidean) line represents a
(Galois) point, as does the horizontal line
and also the verticalandhorizontal
cross that represents the first two points’
binary sum (i.e., symmetric difference,
if the lines are regarded as sets).
Homogeneous coordinates for the
points of this line —
(1,0), (0,1), (1,1).
Here 0 and 1 stand for the elements
of the twoelement Galois field GF(2).
The 3point line is the projective space
corresponding to the affine space
(a plane, not a line) with four points —
(an affine space)
The (Galois) points of this affine plane are
not the single and combined (Euclidean)
line segments that play the role of
points in the 3point projective line,
but rather the four subsquares
that the line segments separate.
For further details, see Galois Geometry.
There are, of course, also the trivial
twopoint affine space and the corresponding
trivial onepoint projective space —
Here again, the points of the affine space are
represented by squares, and the point of the
projective space is represented by a line segment
separating the affinespace squares.
Comments Off on Midsummer Noon
Tuesday, June 22, 2010
"By groping toward the light we are made to realize
how deep the darkness is around us."
— Arthur Koestler, The Call Girls: A TragiComedy,
Random House, 1973, page 118
A 1973 review of Koestler's book—
"Koestler's 'call girls,' summoned here and there
by this university and that foundation
to perform their expert tricks, are the butts
of some chilling satire."
Examples of Light—
Felix Christian Klein (1849 June 22, 1925) and Évariste Galois (18111832)
Klein on Galois—
"… in France just about 1830 a new star of undreamtof brilliance— or rather a meteor, soon to be extinguished— lighted the sky of pure mathematics: Évariste Galois."
— Felix Klein, Development of Mathematics in the 19th Century, translated by Michael Ackerman. Brookline, Mass., Math Sci Press, 1979. Page 80.
"… um 1830 herum in Frankreich als ein neuer Stern von ungeahntem Glanze am Himmel der reinen Mathematik aufleuchtet, um freilich, einem Meteor gleich, sehr bald zu verlöschen: Évariste Galois."
— Felix Klein, Vorlesungen Über Die Entwicklung Der Mathematick Im 19. Jahrhundert. New York, Chelsea Publishing Co., 1967. (Vol. I, originally published in Berlin in 1926.) Page 88.
Examples of Darkness—
Martin Gardner on Galois—
"Galois was a thoroughly obnoxious nerd,
suffering from what today would be called
a 'personality disorder.' His anger was
paranoid and unremitting."
Gardner was reviewing a recent book about Galois by one Amir Alexander.
Alexander himself has written some reviews relevant to the Koestler book above.
See Alexander on—
The 2005 Mykonos conference on Mathematics and Narrative
A series of workshops at Banff International Research Station for Mathematical Innovation between 2003 and 2006. "The meetings brought together professional mathematicians (and other mathematical scientists) with authors, poets, artists, playwrights, and filmmakers to work together on mathematicallyinspired literary works."
Comments Off on Mathematics and Narrative, continued
Saturday, June 19, 2010
In the above view, four of the tesseract's 16
vertices are overlaid by other vertices.
For views that are more complete and
moveable, see Smith's tesseract page.
FourPart Tesseract Divisions—
The above figure shows how fourpart partitions
of the 16 vertices of a tesseract in an infinite
Euclidean space are related to fourpart partitions
of the 16 points in a finite Galois space
Euclidean spaces versus Galois spaces
in a larger context—
Infinite versus Finite
The central aim of Western religion —
"Each of us has something to offer the Creator...
the bridging of
masculine and feminine,
life and death.
It's redemption.... nothing else matters."
 Martha Cooley in The Archivist (1998)
The central aim of Western philosophy —
Dualities of Pythagoras
as reconstructed by Aristotle:
Limited Unlimited
Odd Even
Male Female
Light Dark
Straight Curved
... and so on ....
"Of these dualities, the first is the most important; all the others may be seen as different aspects of this fundamental dichotomy. To establish a rational and consistent relationship between the limited [man, etc.] and the unlimited [the cosmos, etc.] is… the central aim of all Western philosophy."
— Jamie James in The Music of the Spheres (1993)

Another picture related to philosophy and religion—
Jung's FourDiamond Figure from Aion—
This figure was devised by Jung
to represent the Self. Compare the
remarks of Paul Valéry on the Self—
Flight from Eden: The Origins of Modern Literary Criticism and Theory, by Steven Cassedy, U. of California Press, 1990, pages 156157—
Valéry saw the mind as essentially a relational system whose operation he attempted to describe in the language of group mathematics. "Every act of understanding is based on a group," he says (C, 1:331). "My specialty— reducing everything to the study of a system closed on itself and finite" (C, 19: 645). The transformation model came into play, too. At each moment of mental life the mind is like a group, or relational system, but since mental life is continuous over time, one "group" undergoes a "transformation" and becomes a different group in the next moment. If the mind is constantly being transformed, how do we account for the continuity of the self? Simple; by invoking the notion of the invariant. And so we find passages like this one: "The S[elf] is invariant, origin, locus or field, it's a functional property of consciousness" (C, 15:170 [2:315]). Just as in transformational geometry, something remains fixed in all the projective transformations of the mind's momentary systems, and that something is the Self (le Moi, or just M, as Valéry notates it so that it will look like an algebraic variable). Transformation theory is all over the place. "Mathematical science… reduced to algebra, that is, to the analysis of the transformations of a purely differential being made up of homogeneous elements, is the most faithful document of the properties of grouping, disjunction, and variation in the mind" (O, 1:36). "Psychology is a theory of transformations, we just need to isolate the invariants and the groups" (C, 1:915). "Man is a system that transforms itself" (C, 2:896).
Notes:
O Paul Valéry, Oeuvres (Paris: Pléiade, 195760)
C Valéry, Cahiers, 29 vols. (Paris: Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique, 195761)

Note also the remarks of George David Birkhoff at Rice University
in 1940 (pdf) on Galois's theory of groups and the related
"theory of ambiguity" in Galois's testamentary letter—
… metaphysical reasoning always relies on the Principle of Sufficient Reason, and… the true meaning of this Principle is to be found in the “Theory of Ambiguity” and in the associated mathematical “Theory of Groups.”
If I were a Leibnizian mystic, believing in his “preestablished harmony,” and the “best possible world” so satirized by Voltaire in “Candide,” I would say that the metaphysical importance of the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the cognate Theory of Groups arises from the fact that God thinks multidimensionally^{*} whereas men can only think in linear syllogistic series, and the Theory of Groups is the appropriate instrument of thought to remedy our deficiency in this respect.
* That is, uses multidimensional symbols beyond our grasp.

Related material:
Imago Creationis—
A medal designed by Leibniz to show how
binary arithmetic mirrors the creation by God
of something (1) from nothing (0).
Another array of 16 strings of 0's and 1's, this time
regarded as coordinates rather than binary numbers—
Frame of Reference
The Diamond Theorem—
Some context by a British mathematician —
Imago
by Wallace Stevens
Who can pick up the weight of Britain,
Who can move the German load
Or say to the French here is France again?
Imago. Imago. Imago.
It is nothing, no great thing, nor man
Of ten brilliancies of battered gold
And fortunate stone. It moves its parade
Of motions in the mind and heart,
A gorgeous fortitude. Medium man
In February hears the imagination's hymns
And sees its images, its motions
And multitudes of motions
And feels the imagination's mercies,
In a season more than sun and south wind,
Something returning from a deeper quarter,
A glacier running through delirium,
Making this heavy rock a place,
Which is not of our lives composed . . .
Lightly and lightly, O my land,
Move lightly through the air again.

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Wednesday, June 2, 2010
"I wonder if there's just been a critical mass
of creepy stories about Harvard
in the last couple of years…
A kind of piling on of
nastiness and creepiness…"
— Margaret Soltan, October 23, 2006
Harvard University Press
on Facebook—
The book that the late Gardner was reviewing
was published in April by Harvard University Press.
If Gardner's remark were true,
Galois would fit right in at Harvard. Example—
The Harvard math department's pieeating contest—
Comments Off on The Harvard Style
Wikipedia—
"On June 2, Évariste Galois was buried in a common grave of the Montparnasse cemetery whose exact location is unknown."
Évariste Galois, Lettre de Galois à M. Auguste Chevalier—
Après cela, il y aura, j'espère, des gens qui trouveront leur profit à déchiffrer tout ce gâchis.
(Later there will be, I hope, some people who will find it to their advantage to decipher all this mess.)
Martin Gardner on the above letter—
"Galois had written several articles on group theory, and was merely annotating and correcting those earlier published papers."
— The Last Recreations, by Martin Gardner, published by Springer in 2007, page 156.
Leonard E. Dickson—
Comments Off on Rite of Passage
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